on History of
Blazing the Trail:
The Early History
(ENA) in Space
The winner of the Luigi Napolitano Book Award (2006) from the International Academy of Astronautics
List of Figures (with abridged captions)
Reston, Va., 2004
with 340 figures
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Lecture (1 hr 10 min) The Road to Space. The First Thousand Years.
Fifty years ago in October of 1957,
the first artificial satellite of the Earth was launched into space.
The lecture focuses on the history of the events that led us to the space
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List of figures (with significantly abridged captions)
Liftoff of Titan IV.
1. Humble beginning
Fig. 1.1. Aeolipile.
Fig. 1.2. Early Chinese fire arrow-rocket.
Fig. 1.3. Chinese bow-shot incendiary arrow, ca. 1621.
Fig. 1.4. Incendiary bow- and cross-bow-shot arrows widely employed in warfare throughout the world for many centuries.
Fig. 1.5. Rocket basket for launch of up to 20 arrows, ca. 1621.
Fig. 1.6. Chinese rocket launcher for 100 arrows, ca. 1621.
Fig. 1.7. Rocket launcher for 40 arrows, ca. 1621.
2. Rocket proliferation — The First Wave
Fig. 2.1. First wave of proliferation of rocket technology.
Fig. 2.3. Early European rockets from the manuals on artillery and fireworks dated 1591, 1626, 1626, and 1620.
Fig. 2.4. Albertus Magnus, or St. Albert the Great, 1200–1280, described preparation of black powder and discussed likely rocket-propelled devices.
Fig. 2.5. Apparatus for distillation of sulfur in 1540.
Fig. 2.6. Sky rocket and launching trough, ca. 1400.
Fig. 2.7. Specialized rocket workshop ca.1620, and various tools for rocket manufacturing, ca. 1640.
Fig. 2.8. Early war rockets (1598) in Europe.
Fig. 2.9. “How to make the gunpowder for arquebuses and pistols,” ca. 1630.
Fig. 2.10. Arranging the fireworks (1620).
Fig. 2.11. Evolution of the understanding of the solar system, from the Ptolemaic system to Copernican.
Fig. 2.12. Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler, and Isaac Newton.
3. Under Rocket Fire in India
Fig. 3.1. Elephant battery of heavy artillery along the Khyber pass at Campbellpur in 1895.
Fig. 3.2. State of Mysore in India.
Fig. 3.3. Hyder Ali, 1722–1782.
Fig. 3.4. Elephant brigade being taught to stand fire at Moulmein, Burma, in 1853.
Fig. 3.5. Tippoo Sultan, 1749 – 1799.
Fig. 3.6. View from the northwest front at the siege of Seringapatam in May 1799.
4. The Congreve Rocket
Fig. 4.1. Typical rocket.
Fig. 4.2. Congreve rocket family (weapon system) with rockets from 6 lb to 300 lb.
Fig. 4.3. William Congreve directing discharge of his war rockets into the town of Copenhagen in 1807.
Fig. 4.4. One of the greatest British seamen in the 19th century Thomas Cochrane (Lord Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald) in 1807.
Fig. 4.5. 100-lb Congreve rocket.
Fig. 4.6. Firing a Congreve rocket from a launching frame on a boat.
Fig. 4.7. Rocket ship fires the Congreve rockets.
Fig. 4.8. Cover of William Moore's book on rocket dynamics published in 1813.
Fig. 4.9. “Battle of Waterloo. An Ammunition Wagon on Fire & the Horses Taken Fright”
Fig. 4.10. Congreve rockets with the center-mounted guiding stick, demonstrated in the late 1815.
Fig. 4.11. Congreve rocket with a centrally mounted guiding stick.
5. Rockets Come to America
Fig. 5.1. British raiding party leaves behind the ravaged coastal town.
Fig. 5.2. Congreve's rocket ship.
Fig. 5.3. Remains of the Capitol building in Washington.
Fig. 5.4. View of the bombardment of Fort McHenry near Baltimore.
Fig. 5.5. Francis Scott Key, 1780–1843.
Fig. 5.6. The first stanza of Key's “Star-Spangled Banner.”
Fig. 5.7. Andrew Jackson in the Battle of New Orleans, January 1815.
Fig. 5.8. The 100-ft (30.5-m) Chalmette Monument marks the battlefield at New Orleans, the last major military action where rockets were used against Americans on the American soil.
6. First American Rockets
Fig. 6.1. Contemporary drawing of the Hale rocket from 1840s.
Fig. 6.2. Schematics of Hale's rockets.
Fig. 6.3. Washington Arsenal in 1852.
Fig. 6.4. Alfred Mordecai, ca. 1855.
Fig.6.5. Fortress Monroe in 1861 at Old Point Comfort in Virginia, where the first rocket battery was assembled.
Fig. 6.6. Jesse Lee Reno.
Fig. 6.7. Bombardment of Vera Cruz.
Fig. 6.8. Leading personalities of the Confederacy including President Davis, Secretary of War Benjamin, Chief of Ordnance Gorgas, and General Beauregard, were involved in an ill-fated attempt to create a Confederate rocket battery.
7. Rocket Proliferation — The Second Wave
Fig. 7.1. Second wave of proliferation of rocket technology: countries with rocket establishments in the 19th century.
Fig. 7.2. Making war rockets by hydrostatic-driven process.
Fig. 7.3. Division General (Artillery) Louis Susane, 1810–1876, directed development of war rockets in France in the 19th century.
Fig. 7.4. Stickless signal rockets with winglets for stabilization, ca. 1866.
Fig. 7.5. Volley launch of Congreve rockets.
Fig. 7.6. The Paraná expedition: the rockets in action at San Lorenzo on 4 June 1846.
Fig. 7.7. Russian troops bombard Fortress Varna (modern Bulgaria) by rockets in the Russo–Turkish War in 1828.
Fig. 7.8. Lieutenant-General Alexander D. Zasyadko, 1779–1837.
Fig. 7.9. Engineer-General Karl A. Shil'der, 1785–1854.
Fig. 7.10. Rocket-armed submarine built by Karl Shil'der in 1834.
Fig. 7.11. Shil'der's missile submarine was transported by a special barge also armed with rockets.
Fig. 7.12. Lieutenant-General Konstantin I. Konstantinov, 1817 (or 1819) – 1871.
Fig. 7.13. “In [Central] Asia … rockets of various sizes, together with launching stands, could be easily transported on camels ... “
Fig. 7.14. British attack on the town of Gheisk in the Sea of Azov on 5 November 1885, during the Crimean War.
Fig. 7.15. A boat from HMS Harrier discharges rockets at Russian shipping near Nystad (Baltic Sea) on 7 July 1855, during the Crimean War.
Fig. 7.16. Rifled barrel spins up the projectile.
Fig. 7.17. Nineteenth-century rockets: Congreve, Hale, and skyrocket.
Fig. 7.18. Rocket-propelled harpoon invented by the famous American whaler Captain Thomas W. Roys in 1860–1861.
8. Public Imagination on Fire
Fig. 8.1. The approach to Earth.
Fig. 8.2. The future express.
Fig. 8.3. Jules Verne, 1828–1904.
Fig. 8.4. Fire!
Fig. 8.5. Edward Everett Hale, 1822–1909.
Fig. 8.6. Edward Everett Hale at the Boston Common.
Fig. 8.7. Fragment of the Bayeux tapestry showing the comet Halley in 1066.
Fig. 8.8. Giovanni Schiaparelli in the observatory.
Fig. 8.9. Map of planet Mars.
Fig. 8.10. Camille Flammarion, 1842–1925, at the age of 20.
Fig. 8.11. Map of Mars (1908) showing a section of the huge canal Eumenides-Orcus terminating in the Junction Trivium Charontis.
Fig. 8.12. “... Carefully examining the planet, an astronomer determines and sketches the continents, rivers, and islands of the geography of Mars ...”
Fig. 8.13. Giovanni Schiaparelli, 1835–1910.
Fig. 8.14. Percival Lowell, 1855–1916.
Fig. 8.15. Photographic apparatus of the Lowell Observatory devised by Carl O. Lampland and used in getting the photographs of Mars.
Fig. 8.16. Dome of the Percival Lowell's observatory in Tacubaya, near Mexico City, Mexico, where Mars was observed during the winter of 1896–1897.
Fig. 8.17. Percival Lowell in the library.
Fig. 8.18. The sun sets on the canals of Mars.
Fig. 8.19. Mariner 4 image of the Martian surface from 12,600 km (7830 miles).
9. Great Pioneers
Fig. 9.1. Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky in 1909.
Fig. 9.2. Schematic of Tsiolkovsky's hydrocarbon-oxygen rocket proposed in 1903.
Fig. 9.3. Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky in 1930.
Fig. 9.4. Monument to Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky in Moscow, Russia.
Fig. 9.5. Pioneer aviator Robert Esnault-Pelterie in his airplane REP-2.
Fig. 9.6. Robert Esnault-Pelterie was the fourth person in France to obtain the pilot's license (1908).
Fig. 9.7. Robert Esnault-Pelterie with his book L'Astronautique, ca. 1950.
Fig. 9.8. Jean Jacques Barré during the assembly of the rocket EA-41 at Fort de Vancia near Lyon in 1942.
Fig. 9.9. Robert H. Goddard with the first liquid-propellant (gasoline and liquid oxygen) rocket ever to fly, 16 March 1926.
Fig. 9.10. Robert H. Goddard with parts of the experimental setup built at Clark University to study rocket performance in vacuum, ca. 1916.
Fig. 9.11. Robert H. Goddard loading a rocket projectile into a compact launcher on Mount Wilson, California, in 1918.
Fig. 9.12. Robert H. Goddard with Harry F. Guggenheim and Charles A. Lindbergh near Roswell, New Mexico; September 1935.
Fig. 9.13. Robert H. Goddard, ca. 1932.
Fig. 9.14. Robert H. Goddard tows a rocket to a launching site near Roswell, New Mexico, some time in 1930–1932.
Fig. 9.15. Robert H. Goddard (left) works with his crew of three on a new rocket model at Roswell, New Mexico.
Fig. 9.16. One of Goddard's rockets in a launching tower in Roswell, New Mexico.
Fig. 9.17. Reconstructed Goddard's launch tower with a rocket in Roswell, New Mexico.
Fig. 9.18. Hermann Oberth in 1955–1958.
Fig. 9.19. Model B liquid-propellant two-stage rocket designed by Hermann Oberth, 1923.
Fig. 9.20. Hermann Oberth with his team in Berlin, 1930: Rudolf Nebel, Ritter, Barmuller, Kurt Heinisch, Klaus Riedel, Wernher von Braun.
Fig. 9.21. Hermann Oberth, Wernher von Braun, and Chief of the Physics and Astrophysics Section, Research Projects Laboratory, Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Charles A. Lundquist, in Huntsville, Alabama, 28 June 1958.
Fig.9.22. Arthur C. Clarke ca. 1945.
Fig. 9.23. Max Krauss, Nathan Schachner, Bernard Smith, and Alfred Africano were among the first members of the American Rocket Society, summer 1933.
Fig. 9.24. American rocket pioneers John Shesta and G. Edward Pendray with experimental rocket No. 4, summer 1934.
Fig. 9.25. Alexandre Ananoff, 1907–1992, was the key organizer of the First International Astronautical Congress.
Fig. 9.26. Working (private) meeting of the First International Astronautical Congress on 1 October 1950: H.J. Rückert, T. Mur, L. Hansen, T.M. Tabanera, A. Ananoff, G. Loesser, H.H. Koelle, W. Brugel, C. Oesterwinter, F.K. Jungklaass, and J. Humphries.
10. The First Modern Rocket
Fig. 10.1. German foremost rocket expert General Walter R. Dornberger, 1895–1980.
Fig. 10.2. Wernher von Braun, ca. 1930.
Fig. 10.3. Technical Director of the Heers Anstalt Peenemünde (Army Establishment Peenemünde) Wernher von Braun in his office in Haus 4 at
Fig. 10.4. Major locations of the A-4 (V-2) story: Kummersdorf, Peenemünde, Nordhausen (near the Mittelwerk), Oberammergau and Reutte.
Fig. 10.5. Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov signs the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact in 1939. Kliment Voroshilov, Joachim von Ribbentrop, and Joseph Stalin stand behind.
Fig. 10.6. German A-4 (V-2) rocket with the cutout view.
Fig. 10.7. A-4 (V-2) engine.
Fig. 10.8. Launch preparations of the A-4 (V-2) rocket, ca. 1944.
Fig. 10.9. Wernher von Braun with German military brass during rocket tests at Peenemünde, ca. 1943.
Fig. 10.10. Fi-103 (V-1) missile.
Fig. 10.11. Leader of the German rocket program General Walter R. Dornberger, ca. 1943.
Fig. 10.12. Entrance to the main tunnel of the Mittelwerk with the railroad tracks leading into the tunnel.
Fig. 10.13. Liberated prisoners of the camp Lager Nordhausen in the vicinity of the Mittelwerk, 12 April 1945.
Fig. 10.14. A cross tunnel for the assembly of the V-2 rocket engines at the Mittelwerk.
Fig. 10.15. The new winged missiles, Fi-103, began an assault on London on 13 June 1944, exactly one week after the successful landing of the Allied troops in Normandy.
Fig. 10.16. The V-2 rocket is pulled out of the shelter.
Fig. 10.17. German rocketeers after they surrendered to the U.S. troops in Bavaria, 3 May 1945.
Fig. 10.18. Colonel Holger N. Toftoy disables a mine in 1944.
Fig. 10.19. “Paperclip” German rocketeers at Fort Bliss, Texas, in November 1946.
Fig. 10.20. General Holger N. Toftoy organized and supervised the Army rocket development program at the Redstone Arsenal in the 1950s. Von Braun would serve a technical director of the Guiding Missile Development Group (later Division) reporting to Toftoy.
Fig. 10.21. Eberhard Rees from von Braun's group of German rocketeers served in 1970–1973 as director of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama.
11. JATO and Beyond
Fig. 11.1. ARS rocket test in 1934 near Stockton, New Jersey.
Fig. 11.2. Bernard Smith prepares ARS rocket No. 3 in 1934.
Fig. 11.3. Theodore von Kármán in 1953.
Fig. 11.4. GALCIT rocket propulsion proving stand in 1938.
Fig. 11.5. Commanding General of the Army Air Forces General Henry H. “Hap” Arnold with Army Chief of Staff General George C. Marshall in September 1944.
Fig. 11.6. Takeoff of the first American rocket-assisted airplane from March Field, California, on 12 August 1941.
Fig. 11.7. Several minutes before the flight of an Ercoupe aircraft on rocket power alone by Captain Homer A. Boushey.
Fig. 11.8. H. Franklin Pierce was President of ARS in 1940–1942 and one of the founders of the first rocket corporation Reaction Motors, Inc.
Fig. 11.9. A liquid-propellant rocket engine, built by Robert H. Goddard and his team, assists the takeoff of the Navy's flying boat PBY on Severn River near Annapolis, Maryland, in September 1942.
Fig. 11.10. Specialists of the Aerojet Engineering Corporation at Muroc Air Force Base, California, in January 1943: Theodore C. Coleman, John W. Parsons, Edward S. Forman, Paul H. Dane (pilot of the Douglas Havoc A-20, in the background), Andrew G. Haley, Theodore von Kármán, Frank J. Malina, Martin Summerfield, and T. Edward Beehan.
Fig. 11.11. Early rocket firing at Aerojet Engineering Corporation, Azusa, California.
Fig. 11.12. World War II Bazooka and 3.5-lb (1.6-kg) solid-propellant rocket projectile.
Fig. 11.13. Five-inch (127-mm) rockets being loaded under the wing of F4U Corsair.
Fig. 11.14. Corsair fighter launches rockets against the Japanese stronghold on Okinawa in June 1945.
Fig. 11.15. Rows of rocket launchers loaded with deadly missiles aboard an LSM(R), Pacific theater, 1945.
Fig. 11.16. LSM(R) launches rockets, Pacific theater, 1945.
Fig. 11.17. General Henry H. Arnold emerged as a major proponent of development of long-range guided ballistic missiles.
Fig. 11.18. Chinese Communist leader Chairman Mao Zedong and Hsue-Shen Tsien, ca. 1956.
Fig. 11.19. General Curtis LeMay in 1956.
Fig. 11.20. RAND Report “Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship,” 2 May 1946.
Fig. 11.21. Vannevar Bush, visiting the Langley Research Center, October 1938.
Fig. 11.22. Operation Sandy. The V-2 is being prepared for launch aboard the USS Midway (CVB-41) in the Atlantic, September 1947.
Fig. 11.23. Operation Sandy. The V-2s aboard the USS Midway in the Atlantic, September 1947.
Fig. 11.24. Preparation of the V-2 rocket for launch on 10 May 1946. This was the first successful V-2 launch at White Sands Proving Ground.
Fig. 11.25. The headquarters area, White Sands Proving Ground, 1947.
Fig. 11.26. V-2 launch at White Sands Missile Range, ca. 1946.
Fig. 11.27. Missile Park at White Sands Missile Range demonstrates the range's contribution to the development of the American rocket technology.
12. Building the Foundation
Fig. 12.1. Chief of the Research and Development Service of the Army Ordnance Maj. Gen. Gladeon M. Barnes, June 1944.
Fig. 12.2. The Hermes A-1 missile.
Fig. 12.3. Exploded view of JPL's WAC Corporal, first launched at White Sands in September 1945, and the liquid-propellant surface-to-surface missile Corporal with the range of 75 miles (120 km).
Fig. 12.4. Test launch of the Army's Nike antiaircraft guided missile at White Sands in 1950s.
Fig. 12.5. Redstone's liquid-propellant (liquid oxygen and a mixture of alcohol with water).
Fig. 12.6. The Army's Redstone ballistic missile lifts off in a test launch at White Sands Missile Range on 20 January 1959.
Fig. 12.7. The Redstone missile was designed as a highly mobile system that could be assembled and deployed in the field.
Fig. 12.8. Leading Army Ordnance rocketeers General John B. Medaris, Wernher von Braun, and General Holger N. Toftoy.
Fig. 12.9. Jupiter being prepared for launch.
Fig. 12.10. Karel J. “Charlie” Bossart, 1903–1975, led the development of the MX-774 test missile in late 1940s and the first American ICBM Atlas in 1950s.
Fig. 12.11. MX-774 (RTV-A-2) missile on a trailer.
Fig. 12.12. MX-774 static firing test stand at secluded Point Loma in San Diego, California.
Fig. 12.13. Four swiveling rocket engines of the MX-774 (RTV-A-2) rocket enabled flight control (thrust vector control) making aerodynamic control surfaces (fins) obsolete.
Fig. 12.14. Launch of the first MX-774 (RTV-A-2) on 13 July 1948 at White Sands Proving Ground.
Fig. 12.15. Milton W. Rosen, b.1915, joined the Naval Research Laboratory in 1940.
Fig. 12.16. Viking rises at White Sands Missile Range.
Fig. 12.17. The first photograph of a hurricane and a tropical storm obtained by the Viking from a high altitude.
Fig. 12.18. American high-altitude rockets of the late 1940s: Air Force's MX-774 and first Navy's Viking. Also shown are the German A-4 of the early 1940s and the U.S. Army's Redstone of the early 1950s.
Fig. 12.19. Aerojet's Aerobee-150 leaves the launching tower.
Fig. 12.20. Launch of subsonic intercontinental missile Snark on 3 March 1960.
Fig. 12.21. Rocketdyne's Thomas Dixon and Samuel Hoffman led development of a new generation of liquid-propellant rocket engines in the Rocketdyne Division of North American Aviation in 1950s.
Fig. 12.22. A model of the kiloton-range atomic (fission) bomb Mk-5.
Fig. 12.23. Physicist Edward Teller, 1908–2003.
Fig. 12.24. John von Neumann, 1903–1957.
Fig. 12.25. Assistant Secretary of the Air Force Trevor Gardner, the first civilian manager of the Air Force research and development activity.
Fig. 12.26. Commander of Air Force's Western Development Division General Bernard A. Schriever, 1910–2005.
Fig. 12.27. Simon Ramo and Dean Wooldridge outside the original location of their Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation in Westchester, California.
Fig. 12.28. Simon Ramo, b.1913.
Fig. 12.29. Ivan A. Getting, 1912–2003, the founding president of The Aerospace Corporation.
Fig. 12.30. First American operational ICBM Atlas D. The German A-4 (V-2) is shown in scale on the right.
Fig. 12.31. Charles Stark Draper, 1901–1987, at his desk, ca. 1953.
Fig. 12.32. A technician at the Douglas Aircraft Company, California, inspects the polished copper nose cone of an Air Force's Thor IRBM, looking for flaws.
Fig. 12.33. Atmospheric reentry of a blunt body.
Fig. 12.34. Atlas rocket assembly at Convair's San Diego plant, ca. 1960.
Fig. 12.35. Atlas on a transport platform.
Fig. 12.36. The first launch of operational Atlas 12D from Vandenberg Air Force Base on 9 September 1959.
Fig. 12.37. Development of the first American ICBM, Atlas D, evolved into a family of space launchers.
Fig. 12.38. Martin's rocket plant near Littleton, Colorado, mid-1960s.
Fig. 12.39. Titan I launch failure on Pad 16 at Cape Canaveral on 12 December 1959.
Fig. 12.40. Efficient and reliable hydrogen-oxygen RL10A remains the workhorse of the upper-stage propulsion.
Fig. 12.41. First American ICBMs, Atlas D and Titan I, and IRBMs, Thor and Jupiter.
Fig. 12.42. The first Thor being prepared for launch at pad 17B at Cape Canaveral on 27 January 1957.
Fig. 12.43. Rear Admiral William “Red” Raborn, Jr., 1905–1990, headed the Special Projects Office that developed in a record time the world first submarine-launched IRBM weapon system Polaris.
Fig. 12.44. Dr. Edward Teller and Vice Adm. Hyman G. Rickover at the controls of the nuclear-powered Fleet Ballistic Missile submarine USS Sam Houston, summer 1960.
Fig. 12.45. Solid-propellant IRBM Polaris is being loaded into the USS George Washington (SSBN 598).
Fig. 12.46. Chemist Karl Klager, 1908–2002.
Fig. 12.47. Charles B. Henderson, b.1929, was the head of the group at Atlantic Research Corporation that proved in 1954 the effective utilization of aluminum as a high-performance solid-propellant ingredient.
Fig. 12.48. Crewmen work in the far end of the section housing ballistic missiles on one of the first Polaris submarines.
Fig. 12.49. First-stage solid-propellant rocket motors for FBM Polaris A3 manufactured at Aerojet-General's plant in Sacramento, California.
Fig. 12.50. Richard B. Kershner, 1913–1982, first supervisor of the Space Department at the Applied Physics Laboratory.
Fig. 12.51. Weights and center of gravity test on Transit satellite, 28 Match 1960.
Fig. 12.52. Navy's Fleet Ballistic Missile Polaris A1 a few seconds after launch at the Air Force Missile Test Center at Cape Canaveral, Florida.
13. Road to Sputnik
Fig. 13.1. Soviet rocket pioneer Valentin P. Glushko in 1931.
Fig. 13.2. Sergei P. Korolev in the early 1930s.
Fig. 13.3. Launch preparation at the artillery test grounds in Nakhabino some 20 miles (32 km) from Moscow.
Fig. 13.4. GIRD engineers and technicians in 1933.
Fig. 13.5. Before launch of the liquid-propellant rocket GIRD-X at the testing grounds in Nakhabino, 25 November 1933: Sergei P. Korolev, Nikolai I. Efremov, engine designer Leonid S. Dushkin, and engine designer Leonid S. Korneev.
Fig. 13.6. Tomb of a Soviet rocket pioneer Fridrikh A. Tsander in Kislovodsk, Russia.
Fig. 13.7. Katyusha's little sister: smaller 3.3-in. (82-mm) rockets M-8 developed by the USSR during World War II.
Fig. 13.8. Valentin P. Glushko in 1970.
Fig. 13.9. Entrance to the town of Korolev, former Kaliningrad, also known as Podlipki.
Fig. 13.10. Corona satellite photograph (1972) of the area with the highest concentration of the Soviet space research and development centers at Podlipki, 25 km (15 miles) north-north-east from the Moscow downtown. Podlipki is also known as the town of Kaliningrad, recently renamed Korolev.
Fig. 13.11. Space flight control center (Tsentr Upravleniya Polyotami, or TsUP) in TsNIIMash, Podlipki (Kaliningrad, or Korolev).
Fig. 13.12. Sergei P. Korolev in early 1960s.
Fig. 13.13. Mikhail K. Yangel pioneered a family of ballistic missiles with storable, noncryogenic propellants.
Fig. 13.14. Commemorative plate (in the museum of the RKK Energia) presented to the Korolev's Design Bureau by the Yangel's Design Bureau “Yuzhnoe,” Dnepropetrovsk (now in the Ukraine).
Fig. 13.15. Sprawling Soviet rocket and space establishment created in 1950s and early 1960s.
Fig. 13.16. Vladimir N. Chelomei became the main developer of the Soviet ICBMs in 1960s.
Fig. 13.17. The 30-year-old Viktor P. Makeyev became in 1955 head of new design bureau to continue the work, initiated at Korolev's OKB-1, on the submarine-launched liquid-propellant ballistic missiles.
Fig.13.18. Scud missile.
Fig. 13.19. The first Soviet submarine-launched ballistic missile R-11FM.
Fig. 13.20. Dmitrii I. Kozlov, b.1919, headed the branch of Korolev's OKB-1 in Kuibyshev (Samara).
Fig. 13.21. Mikhail F. Reshetnev, 1924–1996, headed the Siberian branch of OKB-1.
14. Gateways to Heaven
Fig. 14.1. Erection of Atlas rocket at Pad 14 on Cape Canaveral, 1957.
Fig. 14.2. Dual-position Saturn I/IB test stand at the T-Stand at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama.
Fig. 14.3. The Bright Eyes tracking telescope at White Sands Proving Ground achieved the first successful optical track over a 50 mile (80 km) distance in 1946.
Fig. 14.4. Kinetheodolites at the Woomera missile test range in Australia.
Fig. 14.5. TLM-18 — typical of the 60-ft (18-m) telemetry antennas installed at Cape Canaveral, Grand Turk, and Ascension.
Fig. 14.6. Fueling a booster of a surface-to-air BOMARC missile by red-fuming nitric acid at Cape Canaveral, September 1952.
Fig. 14.7. Main rocket launch and test sites established in the United Stated and USSR by mid-1960s.
Fig. 14.8. Aerial view of Cape Canaveral in 1955.
Fig. 14.9. Kurt H. Debus was the head of Army's Missile Firing Laboratory responsible for launch operations in 1950s.
Fig. 14.10. The first launch at Cape Canaveral.
Fig. 14.11. Complex 19 blockhouse at Cape Canaveral after remodeling, August 1963.
Fig. 14.12. Two-stage liquid-propellant Titan I rises from Pad 16 at Cape Canaveral on 28 April 1960.
Fig. 14.13. Complex 17 (Pads A and B in foreground) on Cape Canaveral, January 1961.
Fig. 14.14. Modern launching pad at the Vandenberg Air Force Base, California.
Fig. 14.15. Major General Georgii M. Shubnikov, 1903–1965, Commander of the 130th Directorate of Engineering Works.
Fig. 14.16. Chief Engineer of the 130th Directorate of Engineering Works Engineer-Colonel Alexander Yu. Gruntman, 1912–1975, supervised all of the construction work at the Tyuratam cosmodrome, supporting facilities, military installations, settlement, and infrastructure.
Fig. 14.17. Tyuratam with a harsh continental climate and cold and windy winters was definitely no Florida.
Fig. 14.18. Unforgiving land met the first settlers in Tyuratam.
Fig.14.19. Aerial view of the launch pad for the first ICBM and the gigantic flame pit at Tyuratam in 1957.
Fig. 14.20. Vladimir P. Barmin, 1909–1993, designed launch complexes for major Soviet rocket systems, including the cosmodromes, mobile launchers, and first silos.
Fig. 14.21. One of the first U-2 photographs of the Tyuratam launching pad in 1950s.
Fig. 14.22. Composite satellite image of the Tyuratam launch complex, the cosmodrome, obtained by Corona in 1962.
Fig.14.23. All Soviet manned space missions originated from Tyuratam, with cosmonauts spending some time there in preparation for their flights.
15. The Breakthrough
Fig. 15.1. Air Force Colonel Mikhail K. Tikhonravov, ca. 1951.
Fig. 15.2. The first ICBM R-7 at the Tyuratam missile test range in May–June 1957.
Fig. 15.3. Sergei P. Korolev was the main driving force behind the first ICBM, first artificial satellite, first manned spaceflight, and many other first Soviet satellite systems.
Fig. 15.4. The R-7 ICBM being readied for launch at Tyuratam in May–June 1957.
Fig. 15.5. First artificial satellite Sputnik 1.
Fig. 15.6. Chief designers of space systems on 4 October 1957, in Tyuratam, after the launch of the first artificial satellite of the Earth, Sputnik.
Fig.15.7. The Energia–Buran vehicle combination engraved on the tombstone of Valentin P. Glushko.
Fig. 15.8. Monuments to Sergei P. Korolev and Mstislav V. Keldysh in Moscow.
Fig. 15.9. Comparative sizes of R-7, Atlas, Juno-1 (a variant of the Jupiter C) , and Vanguard.
Fig. 15.10. Vostok rocket that launched the first man into space.
Fig.15.11. First cosmonaut Yuri A. Gagarin in Tyuratam on 12 June 1963.
Fig. 15.12. Redstone and Jupiter C missiles.
Fig. 15.13. Donald A. Quarles, 1894–1959, being sworn in as Secretary of the Air Force on 15 August 1955.
Fig. 15.14. Director of Project Vanguard Dr. John P. Hagen with the staff members of Project Vanguard.
Fig. 15.15. Project engineer Donald J. Markarian and operations manager N. Elliot Felt, Jr..
Fig. 15.16. Launch sequence of the three-stage Vanguard rocket.
Fig. 15.17. Minitrack station near Quito, Ecuador.
Fig. 15.18. Baby satellite (Vanguard I).
Fig. 15.19. Juno 1, a modified Jupiter C rocket with an elongated Redstone as the first stage ready for launch of the first U.S. satellite Explorer I on 31 January 1958.
Fig. 15.20. Second and third stages of Jupiter C.
Fig. 15.21. An attempt to launch the Vanguard test vehicle TV-3 ends in failure on 6 December 1957 at Cape Canaveral.
Fig. 15.22. Members of the Army team with a model of Explorer I.
Fig. 15.23. Director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory William H. Pickering (1910–2004) holds a prototype of the Army satellite Explorer I, December 1957.
Fig. 15.24. Explorer I satellite with the fourth-stage scaled-down Sergeant rocket, January 1958.
Fig. 15.25. Juno 1 on a launching pad on 31 January 1958.
Fig. 15.26. A model of Explorer I displayed by jubilant William H. Pickering (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), James A. Van Allen (State University of Iowa), and Wernher von Braun (Army Ballistic Missile Agency).
Fig. 15.27. Simple model of Explorer I.
Fig. 15.28. This perfect launch from Cape Canaveral on 17 March 1958 deployed the Vanguard I satellite in orbit and demonstrated the new space launch vehicle.
Fig. 15.29. NRL personnel on the top of the gantry crane with the Vanguard I satellite at Cape Canaveral in early 1958.
Fig. 15.30. Comparative sizes and masses of the first three Earth satellites, Sputnik 1, Explorer I, and Vanguard I.
Fig. 15.31. Timeline of major developments on the road to the ICBM and first satellites.
Fig. 15.32. T. Keith Glennan, 1905–1995, became the first NASA administrator in 1958.
Fig. 15.33. A 100-ft (30.5-m)-diam passive communication satellite Echo I during the inflation test in 1959.
Fig. 15.34. The original seven Mercury astronauts were selected in 1959.
Fig. 15.35. Alan B. Shepard in the Freedom-7 Mercury spacecraft before launch on 5 May 1961.
Fig. 15.36. President John F. Kennedy with Wernher von Braun, 19 May 1963.
16. Opening the Skies
Fig. 16.1. President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, 8 May 1957.
Fig. 16.2. Nikita S. Khrushchev.
Fig. 16.3. Leading postwar advocate of high-altitude reconnaissance Richard S. Leghorn.
Fig. 16.4. Richard M. Bissell, Jr. with President John F. Kennedy and CIA directors Allen Dulles and John McCone, in March 1962.
Fig. 16.5. Major General Osmond J. “Ozzie” Ritland, 1909–1991, with a model of an Agena upper stage, 1960.
Fig. 16.6. Upper-stage Agena A, ca. 1960.
Fig. 16.8. The first Corona flight (Discoverer I) being prepared for launch on the Thor Agena A vehicle at Vandenberg Air Force Base on 28 February 1959.
Fig. 16.9. The first successfully recovered Corona capsule (Corona flight 13 —Discoverer XIII).
Fig. 16.10. Evolution of the family of the early Corona photoreconnaissance spacecraft, from first Corona (KH-1, KH-2, KH-3) to stereoscopic Mural (KH-4).
Fig. 16.11. Corona satellite photographs of Saryshagan antiballistic missile defense test range (presently in Kazakhstan). First ballistic missile intercept on 4 March 1961.
Fig. 16.12. Example of intelligence derived from the Corona program —Saryshagan antiballistic missile defense test range, ca. 1963. First ballistic missile intercept on 4 March 1961.
Fig. 16.13. The first American operational reconnaissance satellite known as the Galactic Radiation Background (GRAB) satellite.
Fig.16.14. Nuclear explosion monitoring satellites Vela 5A and 5B are assembled for flight.
Fig.16.15. Artist rendition of satellite separation prior to injection into operational orbits of the second-generation Vela satellites.
Fig. 16.16. Vela's optical sensor, also known as “bhangmeter.”
Fig. 16.17. Soviet photoreconnaissance spacecraft Zenit-2, ca. 1962–1963.
17. Joining the Club
Fig. 17.1. Humble beginning of the French practical rocketry: Jean Jacques Barré, 1901–1978, with his liquid-propellant EA-41 rocket.
Fig. 17.2. French space port at Hammaguir, Algeria, in 1967.
Fig. 17.3. The first French satellite, technological spacecraft A-1, also named Astérix.
Fig.17.4. Launch of the first French technological satellite A-1, Astérix, by the Diamant-A rocket on 26 November 1965 at Hammaguir.
Fig. 17.5. Rocket establishment, Woomera, of the Australian missile testing range in the semidesert of the Arcoona Plateau.
Fig. 17.6. Radar at Central Bore near Mt. Elba at Woomera.
Fig. 17.7. Australian Weapons Research Establishment Satellite (WRESAT) being prepared at Woomera for launch by the modified American Redstone rocket on 29 November 1967.
Fig. 17.8. ELDO's Europa-1 being prepared for launch.
Fig. 17.9. British Black Arrow rocket being prepared for launch of the Prospero satellite at Woomera on 28 October 1971.
Fig. 17.10. Hideo Itokawa, 1912–1999, with a “Pencil” rocket and “Baby” rocket.
Fig. 17.11. Kagoshima launch site at the tip of the island of Kyushu on the southern edge of Japan.
Fig. 17.12. Launch of the first Japanese satellite by the Lambda-4S rocket from the Kagoshima Space Center on 11 February 1970.
Fig. 17.13. First Japanese satellite Ohsumi launched on 11 February 1970.
Fig. 17.14. Hsue-Shen Tsien with Premier of communist China Zhou Enlai.
Fig. 17.15. Long March rocket that launched the first Chinese satellite DFH-1 on 24 April 1970.
Fig. 17.16. First Chinese artificial satellite DFH-1.
Fig. 17.17. Vikram Sarabhai, 1919–1971, considered by many to be a “father” of the modern Indian space program.
Fig. 17.18. The first Indian satellite Aryabhata launched by the Soviet Union from the Kapustin Yar missile range on 19 April 1975.
Fig. 17.19. First launch of a satellite by the Indian SLV-3 rocket from a launch site on Sriharicota Island on 18 July 1980.
Fig.17.20. Rohini, the first Indian satellite placed in orbit by a national space launcher, the SLV-3.
Fig. 17.21. Israel's three-stage rocket Shavit launches a satellite from the Palmachim Air Force Base near Tel Aviv.
Fig. 17.22. Israel's third satellite, Ofeq-3, successfully launched in April 1995.
18. The First Thousand Years
Fig. 18.1. Successes and failures of early space launches in the United States.
Fig. 18.2. Breakthrough to space — a monument to the conquerors of space in Moscow.
Fig. 18.3. Cutaway view of the first successfully launched (13 April 1960) navigational satellite Transit 1B.
Fig. 18.4. Saturn V at Cape Canaveral.
Fig. 18.5. Delta II rocket reaches to orbit from Vandenberg Air Force Base, 25 March 2000.