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Videos on satellite orbits  –  videos by mike gruntman          books by mike gruntman  –  Mike's books

Mike's short courses on space systems

Elite Space Club

Countries that launched satellites by their space launchers

USC history  –  Enemy Amongst Trojans. A Spy at USC

Spaceflight History  –  Socks for the First Cosmonaut of Planet Earth



Chronological order


Soviet Union – October 4, 1957

satellite: Sputnik ("sputnik" means "fellow traveler" in Russian)

launcher: modified R-7 ICBM

launch site: Tyuratam   (Baikonur)


United States – January 31, 1958

satellite: Explorer I

launcher: Juno (modified Jupiter C)

launch site: Cape Canaveral


France – November 26, 1965

satellite: Asterix-1

launcher: modified Diamant-A ("diamant" means "diamond" in French)

launch site: Hammaguir, Algeria


Japan – February 11, 1970

satellite: Ohsumi-1

launcher: Lambda-4S

launch site: Kagoshima Space Center, Algeria


China (PRC) – April 24, 1970

satellite: Dong Fong Hong 1 ("dong fong hong" means "the east is red" in Chinese)

launcher: Long March 1

launch site: Jiuquan Launch Site


Great Britain – October 28, 1971

satellite: Black Knight 1

launcher: Black Arrow

launch site: Woomera, Australia


European Space Agency (ESA) – December 24, 1979

satellite: CAT

launcher: Ariane

launch site: Kourou, French Guiana


India – July 18, 1980

satellite: Rohini-1

launcher: Satellite Launch Vehicle 3

launch site: Sriharicota Island


Israel – September 19, 1988

satellite: Ofeq 1 ("ofeq" means "horizon" in Hebrew)

launcher: Shavit ("shavit" means "comet" in Hebrew)

launch site: Palmachim Air Force Base, Israel


Iran – February 2, 2009

satellite: Omid-1 ("omid" means "hope" in Farsi)

launcher: Safir-2

launch site: Iran


North Korea (DPRK) – December 12, 2012

satellite: Kwang Myong Song 3 (KMS-3-2) ("song" means "star" in Korean)

launcher: Unha-3 ("unha" means "galaxy" in Korean)

launch site: Sohae Satellite Launching Station, North Korea (DPRK)


South Korea (ROK) – January 30, 2013

satellite: STSAT-2C

launcher: Korea Satellite Launch Vehicle (KSLV-1) (part Korean, Part Russian)

launch site: Naro Space Center


Recommended books on history of astronautics, rocketry, and space

Recommended science and engineering books on astronautics, rocketry, and space technology

Missile defense publications



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