Spitnik Explorer I Vanguard 1
First cosmonaut Yuri A. Gagarin
Flight on 12 April 1961 from Tyuratam (Baikonur )
Fig. 15.11. First cosmonaut Yuri A. Gagarin in Tyuratam on 12 June 1963, more than two years after his historical space flight. Gagarin is in the uniform of an Air Force lieutenant-colonel. Major Andrian Nikolaev, the third Soviet Ccosmonaut, is on the left. From: M. Gruntman, Blazing the Trail. The Early History of Spacecraft and Rocketry, AIAA, Reston, Va., 2004 , p. 347.
Fig. 15.10. Vostok rocket that launched the first man into space on display in Moscow. One can see the third stage clearly separated from the rocket sustainer ("second") stage with four booster (side) sections. From: M. Gruntman, Blazing the Trail. The Early History of Spacecraft and Rocketry, AIAA, Reston, Va., 2004 , p. 346.
Mike Gruntman, From Astronautics to Cosmonautics , BookSurge, North Charleston, S.C., 2007
Nominated for the Emme Award (2008) of the American Astronautical Society.
The book includes histories of the words cosmonaut and cosmonautics and the Cosmonautics Day (Chapter 4 ).
Mike Gruntman, Socks for the First Cosmonaut of Planet Earth, Quest, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 44-48, 2011.
Space: From Firecrackers to Interstellar Flight (webcast)
Part 1. The First Thousand Years. (87 min)
Part 2. Space in 21st Century. (84 min)
Educational video clips – space missions and spacecraft design
Global Positioning System GPS constellation; orbit circularization by atmospheric drag; Molniya orbit; regression of nodes; prograde, retrograde, and sun-synchronous orbits; rotation of apsides; Molniya communication relay; effect of solar radiation pressure
Recommended books on astronautics and space technology
Recommended books on history of astronautics and space technology