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Mike Gruntman's
Blazing the Trail. The Early History of Spacecraft and Rocketry
 

The winner of the Luigi Napolitano Book Award (2006) from the International Academy of Astronautics

Index

Mike Gruntman
Blazing the Trail:
The Early History of Spacecraft and Rocketry

AIAA, 2004
ISBN 1-56347-705-X
ISBN 978-1-56347-705-8
(List price $39.95)

475 pages with 340 figures
Index: 2750+ entries, including 650 individuals

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Lecture (1 hr 10 minThe Road to Space. The First Thousand Years.

Fifty years ago in October of 1957, the first artificial satellite of the Earth was launched into space. The lecture focuses on the history of the events that led us to the space age. You can freely download the video ( 390 MB) and slides (pdf) of the presentation on your computer.

Space: From Firecrackers to Interstellar Flight
webcast: Part 1 (87 min); Part 2 (84 min)


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Some book pages:

pages 51-53
page 117
page 231
page 233
page 236
pages 273-275
page 312
page 321
page 333
page 334
page 338
page 345
pages 348-349
page 375
page 376
pages 407-408
pages 440-441
page 444

Index

Numbers

1059 model 440
304  249
598  class Polaris submarine 257, 258
8001, Bell model 397
8096, Bell model 397
8A11 284, 289
8A61 289
8A62 289
8K51 284
8K63 286, 289
8K64 289
8K65 289
8K67 289
8K71 289, 293
8K72 345
8K75 289
8K84 289
8Zh38 289


A

A-1 138
A-1, Astérix. See Astérix (A-1)
A-2 138
A-3 138, 139
A-4 125, 138-148, 151, 153–155, 157, 159, 163, 183, 194, 218, 237, 277, 328, 376.  See also V-2
A-4 engine 143, 152, 205, 250
A-4 typical parameters 143
A-5 138, 139
A-9 155
A-12 391, 393, 460. See also SR-71
A-20, Douglas Havoc 176, 177

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Abbasid dynasty 11
Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. 160, 167, 178, 202
ablation 239, 243
Able 253
AC Spark Plug Division, General Motors   244, 251, 252
Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology, PRC 444
Academy of Rocket Motor Technology, PRC 444
Academy of Sciences, USSR 331, 335, 338, 341
Academy of Space Technology, PRC 443
Adelaide 423, 424
Adelaide University 427
Adelaide–Perth transcontinental railroad 424
Adour River 39, 40
Adriatic Sea 69
Advanced Reconnaissance System 392
Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)    241, 245, 264, 377, 379, 395, 406, 411, 426
aeolipile 1
Aerobee 196, 199, 219
Aerobee-150 219
aerodynamics, supersonic 139, 186
Aerojet Engineering Corporation 169, 174, 176, 177, 179, 187, 188, 219, 228, 246, 247, 249, 251, 253, 254, 258–260, 262, 354, 355, 378, 394, 396
Aeronautical Arsenal, Châtillon 161
Aeronautical Institute, Aachen 169
Aeronautical Research Institute, Japan 436
Aerophysics Laboratory, North American Aviation 223
Aeroplex 259
Aerospace Corporation 232, 233, 235
Aerozine-50 247
Afghanistan 292
Africano, Alfred 110, 130, 132, 133, 167
Agate 421
Agena 253, 396, 397, 401
Agena A 397, 398, 403
Agena B 397
Agena D 397
Ahrens, Carl 167
AIAA. See American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
aileron 109
air (reentry) burst 153
air defense 162, 179, 409
air drag 116
Air Force Academy, USSR 281
Air Force Ballistic Missile Division 234
Air Force Cambridge Research Center 366
Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory 200
Air Force Eastern Test Range (AFETR) 305
Air Force Large Solid Rocket Feasibility Program 254
Air Force Systems Command 231
Air Force, U.S. 192
AJ10-118 253, 354, 355
AJ10-40 253
Ak-Mechet' 81
Akmolinsk 312
al-Din, Rashid 11
Al-Husayn 292
Albertus Magnus 12
alcohol, ethyl 316
alcohol, furfuryl 203
Aleman, Miguel 303
Alexander, W.M. 366
Alexandria, Va. 51
Algeria 58, 73, 112, 418-420
Algoz 78
All-Union Scientific-Research Inst. of Television 414
Allegany Ballistic Laboratory (ABL) 254, 260, 354
Allen, H. Julian 239, 242
Alma 84
Almaz 290
Alouette 1 397
Alpha 428
Alpha Centauri 462
Altair X-248 354
Alter, Chester M. 400
aluminum, as solid propellant 258, 259
Alvarez, Luis 226
Amaldi, E. 430
amatol 146
American Bosch Arma Corp. 246, 251
American Institute for Rocket Research 131
American Inst. of Aeronautics and Astronautics 132
American Interplanetary Society 88, 130–132.   See also American Rocket Society (ARS)
American Military Comm. to Europe (1855–1856) 56
American Rocket Society (ARS) 110, 130–132, 134, 167, 168, 174, 341, 350
Ames Aeronautics Laboratory, NACA 239, 242, 379
Ames, Joseph S. 132
Ames Research Center, NASA 379
ammonium nitrate 146
AMOS 454
Ananoff, Alexandre 130, 134, 135
Anatolia 23
Andreæ Danduli 14
Angara, object 323
aniline 172, 175
Annapolis, Md. 123, 172, 175, 176
Antarctic 442
Antigua 357, 370
Antofagasta, Chile 357
Antoniadi, Eugène 102
Antwerp 140, 154, 159
Apollo program 240, 305, 308, 384
Applications Technology Satellite (ATS) 448
Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) 200, 218, 219, 224, 260, 263, 264, 356, 409, 410
AQUATONE, project 391
Arabs 9, 10, 12
Aral Sea 312, 318
Araucano 71
Arcoona Plateau 424
Ardebil Fortress 78
Argentina 69–71, 75, 83, 134, 357
Argon 225, 405–407
Argus 241
Ariane 418, 432
Ariel (name) 434
Ariel series 432
Ariel-1 432
Ariel-2 432
Ariel-3 432
Ariel-6 432
Armenia 7
Armija Krajowa (the Home Army) 140
Armistead, George 52
Armistice of 1918 117
Armistice of 1940 112
Armstrong–Siddeley Motors 428
Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) 127, 208, 209, 211, 251, 333, 349, 352, 355, 359, 360, 364, 371, 372, 377, 379
Army Map Service 406
Army Ordnance 55, 57, 62, 359
Army Ordnance Missile Command (AOMC) 377
Army Signal Research and Development Lab. 358
Arnold Engineering Research Center 171
Arnold, Henry H. "Hap" 169–171, 184, 185, 188, 192, 193
Arnold, Weld 168
Arnowitz, Leonard 353
Arroyo Seco 170
arsenal
Augusta, Ga. 59, 62
Detroit, Mich. 59
Frankfort, Penn. 60
Orenburg Military District 81
Richmond, Va. 65
Valparaiso 71
Washington, D.C. 57, 58, 60
Watervliet, N.Y. 59, 60
Arsenal Design Bureau 287
artillery 10, 12, 23–25, 31–33, 43, 60, 76, 84, 85, 290
Artillery School 61
Artillery School, Mikhailovskoye. See Mikhailovskoye Artillery School
Aryabhata (mathematician and astronomer) 448
Aryabhata (satellite) 448, 449
Arzamas-16 275
Ascension Island 299, 308
Asia 69
Astérix (A-1) 418, 421, 422, 423
Astris 429
Astrodyne, Inc. 254
astronaut (word) 111, 326
Astronautical Congress, First International 134, 135
Astronautical Congress, Second International 134
Astronautics Division, Convair 234. See also General Dynamics - Astronautics
Astronautics, Joutnal of the American Rocket Society    128, 130, 131, 133, 168, 170, 174, 340, 341
astronautics, word origin 111
Astronomy and Astrophysics Division, NRL 352
Atlantic Ocean 75
Atlantic Research Corporation    254, 258, 259, 261, 354
Atlas 193, 208, 210, 216, 223, 226, 228, 231, 232, 234–238, 241, 243–246, 249–253, 260, 265, 266, 289, 297, 308, 327, 344, 376, 396, 397, 428
Atlas 12D 245
Atlas A 236
Atlas B 236, 352
Atlas C 236
Atlas D 236, 237, 243, 246, 250, 328
Atlas E 236, 243
Atlas F 236, 243
Atlas V 250
Atlas-Agena 412
atomic bomb 215, 221, 224–227, 331, 441.
See also nuclear weapons
Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) 180, 230, 249, 257, 261, 379, 412, 458
atomic energy for rocket propulsion 146, 180
attitude control 189, 190, 399, 402, 456
Aubinière, Robert 420
Auburn, Mass. 113
Augenstein, Bruno W. 231
aurora borealis 112
Australia 131, 264, 299, 357, 417, 423, 424, 426, 429, 431
Australian Rocket Society 131, 133
Austria 69, 70, 74, 76, 128, 130, 157, 386, 430
Austria-Hungary 123, 128
Austrian Society for High-Altitude Research 130
Austrian Society for Rocket Technology 130
Austrian State Treaty 386
author of this book 123, 315
Autonetics Division, North American Aviation  222, 238, 239, 263, 265
Auxiliary Flight Research Station, Wallops Isl. 302
Avco 251, 265
Avduevsky, Vsevolod S. 330
Axter, Herbert 156, 157
Azov, Sea of 82, 84
Azusa 238
Azusa, Calif. 177, 179

B

B-29 188, 240
B-52 442
B-57 311
B-58 Hustler 253, 397
Backfire, operation 159
Bacon, Roger 12, 20
Baghdad 11
Baikonur 318, 321. See also Tyuratam
Baker, James G. 357, 390, 392, 398, 400
Baker, R.L. 55
Baker–Nunn camera 357, 390
Balaklava 84
Balchild, G.E. 47
Balkans 80, 82
Balkhash, Lake 319, 407, 408
Ballistic and Aerodynamic Res.Lab. (LRBA), France   161, 418, 429
Ballistic Missile Division, Air Force 211
ballistic missile, long-range, intercontinental   174, 191–193, 210, 222, 227, 228, 230, 302, 325, 331, 385
Ballistic Missiles Res. and Devel. Co., France 423
balloon 128, 302, 390, 391, 401, 402
balloon, steel 235
Baltic Sea 83, 84, 142
Baltimore Gun Club 91, 302
Baltimore, Md. 50–52, 91, 123, 216
bamboo 2, 23
Banana River, Fla. 303
Banana River Naval Air Station 304, 315
Banda Oriental. See Uruguay
Bangalore 25
Bangor, Wash. 262
Barbary Coast, North Africa 71
Barcelona, Spain 361
Barmin, Vladimir P. 161, 283, 284, 317, 319, 336
Barmuller 125
Barnes, Gladeon M. 201, 204
Barney, Joshua 49
Barnsley, Des 427
Barré, Jean-Jacques 112, 113, 130, 418, 419
Barstow, Calif. 202
Basque Roads 36, 37, 71
Battle of Stonington. See Stonington, Conn.
Battle of Stonington, song 49
Battle of the Nations 41, 43
Bauman Moscow Technical School (MVTU) 283
Baumann, Robert C. 374
Bavaria 156, 157, 159, 160
Bay of Pigs 384, 393
Bayeux tapestry 93
bazooka 114, 117, 178
beach barrage rockets (BBR) 181
Beacon Hill study 388, 390
Beauchant, Lieutenant 50, 51
Beauregard, Pierre G.T. 64, 66
Becker, Karl 137
Beehan, T. Edward 176
Beijing 442
Belgium 43, 69, 154, 210, 429, 430
Belgrade 12
Belka 345, 403
Bell Aircraft Corporation 165, 210, 211, 253, 351, 397
Bell Telephone Laboratories 178, 202, 204, 246, 251, 458
Bellicorum Instrumentorum Liber 14
Bellifortis 14
Beltsville Space Center, NASA 379.
See also Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA
Bendix Aviation 210
Benin 69, 72
Benjamin, Judah P. 66
Benjamin of Tudela, Rabbi 11
Berdyansk 84
Berenice 421
Berg, Winfred E. 352
Bergerac, Cyrano de 88
Beria, L.P. 274
Bering Straight 95
Berkner, Lloyd V. 332, 348, 349
Berlin 125, 126, 137, 139, 148, 195
Bernadotte, Marshal 41, 43
Bessemer steel 85
Best, Alfred H. 167
Beta 428
Bethe, Hans 227
bhangmeter 413
Bhaskhara (mathematician and astronomer) 448
Bhaskhara 1 448
Bhaskhara 2 448
Bikini Atoll 227
Billy the Kid 120
Biringuccio, Vannoccio 13
Birmingham University 434
Biscay, Bay of 183, 419
Bissell Jr., Richard M. 391, 393, 395, 396, 402
Black Arrow 418, 433, 434
Black Knight 428, 433
black powder 1, 12, 13, 17, 24, 25.   See also gunpowder
Black Sea 77, 83, 84, 282
Bladensburg, Battle of 50
Bleicherode 154, 161
Blizna 153
Block E 344
Block I 344
blockhouse 300, 305, 306, 307
Blossom Point, Md. 357
Blue Streak 428, 429, 431
blue suit crew 309
Board of Ordnance 55, 60
boat, flying 123, 175, 176
Bode, Hendrik W. 229
Boeing Corp. 253, 265
Bogomolov, Aleksei F. 336
Bogue, Captain 41, 43
Bohn, J.L. 366
Bollay, William 168
Bologna 11
Bolshevo 281
BOMARC 300
Bomber Command, Royal Air Force 148
bomber gap 388, 392, 404
Bordeaux 16
Borneo 70
Borovsk 104
Bossart, Karel J. "Charlie" 210, 213, 235, 239
Boston 92
Boston University 388, 398, 400, 402
Boston University Optical Research Lab. (BUORL)  388, 400.    See also Boston University Physical Research Lab. (BUPRL)
Boston University Physical Research Lab. (BUPRL)  388, 398, 402
Boulogne 35, 36
Boushey, Homer A. 171, 173
Bowles, Edward L. 188
Boxer, Edward M. 86
Bracknell 430
Bradbury, Norris 227
Brahe, Tycho 19, 21, 94
Brakemine 183
Bravo 227, 231
Brazil 69–71, 83, 417, 418, 454
breach loading 85
Breslau (Wroclaw) 130
Brezhnev, Leonid I. 290
Bridger, James M. 352, 353
Briggs, Lyman J. 132
Bright Eyes 299
brimstone 2. See also sulfur
Bringer, Heinz 161
Brisbane, Queensland 131
Bristol Aerojet Ltd. 433
British Aircraft Corporation, Bristol 434
British Hovercraft Corp. 433
British Interplanetary Society (BIS)  129, 131, 133, 134
Bromley, William 157
Brucker, Wilbur M. 350, 364
Brugel, W. 135
Brugioni, Dino A. 319
Brussels 154
Buck Rogers 193
Buffalo, N.Y. 165
Bulganak 84
Bulganin, Nikolai A. 312, 385, 387, 389
Bulgaria 77, 78
Bull, Harry W. 167
Bull Run, Battle of 66
Bumblebee 219, 260
Bumper 204
Bumper 7 305, 306
Bumper 8 305, 306
Buran, cruise missile 222, 311, 312
Buran, space shuttle 337
Burbank, Calif. 391
Bureau of Aeronautics (BuAer), Navy 174, 177, 187
Bureau of Ordnance (BuOrd), Navy 224, 259
Bureau of Ships, Navy 158
Burgess, Eric 131
Burghardt, Joseph E. 353
Burke, Arleigh 254, 257
Burma 26
Burns, Bob 178
Burroughs Corp. 244, 251
Burya 311, 312
Bush, Vannevar 191–193, 341
Byelorussia 153
Byzantine 7–10, 12

C

C-119 401, 403, 404
Cadiz 72
Calais 183
caliber, artillery 59
California Institute of Technology 110, 118, 169, 170
Callao 71
Callender, Franklin D. 59, 62, 64
Calliope 181
Cambridge, Mass. 240
camel 25, 80, 81
camera C''' 402
camera J-1 402, 405
camera J-3 402, 405
camera M (Mural) 402, 405
camera, Petzval design 402
camera, photoreconnaissance 390, 392, 397–403, 405, 407, 414
Camp Cooke 309
Camp Irwin 202
Campbellpur 24
Canada 47, 397, 417
Canberra, aircraft 311
cannon 31, 76
Canoga Park, Calif. 223, 244
Cape Canaveral 165, 204, 207, 209, 235, 247, 248, 265, 297, 299, 301–304, 306, 355, 357, 372, 374, 459
Cape Ozernoi 312
carbonite 183
Carnegie Institution 260
Carpenter, Scott 380
Carver, John 427
Carver, Nathan 110
Casablanca 181
Caspian Sea 311, 312
Castle 227
Castlereagh, War Secretary 33
CAT 418
catalyst 145
catapult 9
Catholic University of America 260
Caucasus 77, 78, 80
cavalry 24, 27, 44, 74, 76
Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, England 447
Centaur 249
Center for the Study of Self-Propelled Projectiles 161
Central Asia 81, 312, 316, 329
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) 343, 391, 402
Cerro Gordo, Battle of 62, 64
Chalmette Monument 54
Champlain, lake 49
Chance Vought Aircraft, Inc. 221
Chandra 233
Chang Zheng (Long March) space launcher  442, 444, 445
Chapman, Sydney 348
Chapultepec, Battle of 62, 64
charcoal 2, 4, 13, 16, 17
Charles, Lieutenant-Colonel 71
Charles Stark Draper Laboratory 240.
See also Instrumentation Laboratory, MIT
Châtillon 161
Chelomei, Vladimir N. 288–290, 338
Chemical Propulsion Information Agency 224
Cheranovsky, Boris I. 269, 270
Chertok, Boris E. 161, 162, 284
Chesapeake Bay 47, 49, 50
Chicago, Ill. 131, 323
Chile 37, 69–71, 356
Chiloe, Island of 71
China 2, 3, 5–8, 11, 13, 23, 25, 69, 73
China (Communist, Red).
See People's Republic of China (PRC)
China Lake, Calif. 302
Chinese Academy of Sciences 442
Chinese Communist Party 186, 445
Chioggia, Naval War of 14
Chkalovskaya 281
Chrétien, Henri 111
Christmas Island 263
Christofilos, Nick 241
Chrysler Corporation 206, 209, 251
Churchill, Winston 148, 155, 179, 183
Churubusco, Battle of 62
Cincinnati Test Laboratories,
Goodyear Aircraft Co. 251
circular error probable (CEP) 327
Ciudad Juarez 164, 302
Civil War 60, 62, 65, 89, 91
CL-282 391
CL-400 249
Clark Field, Philippines 442
Clark University 113, 114, 117, 121
Clarke, Arthur C. 128, 129, 133
Cleator, Phillip E. 131
Cleveland Center, NACA 180
Cleveland, Ohio 130, 168, 249, 379
Cleveland Rocket Society 130
Cochrane, Alexander 49, 52
Cochrane, Thomas 37, 70, 71
Cockatoo 426
Cockburn, Rear Admiral 50
Cohen, Guy 353
Coleman, Theodore C. 176
Collbohm, Franklin 188
Collier magazine 193
Colomb-Béchar 419
Colquhoun, James N. 85
Columbia University 180
combustion 34, 112
combustion chamber 122, 138, 144, 167, 215
combustion instability 176, 260, 455
comet 88, 89, 93
Comm. for Eval. the Feasibility of Space Rocketry 187
Common Market 430
Communications Satellite Corporation 380
communications, space. See space communications
Complex 17, Cape Canaveral 309
Complex 19, Cape Canaveral 307
Compton 233
Computational Center, NII-88 282.  See also Space Flight Control Center  (TsUP)
concentration camp.   See Mittelwerk and concentration camps
Confederate Army 65
Congress, United States 52, 55, 123, 192, 233, 261,
303, 377, 378, 381–384
Congreve (Congreve the Elder), William 32
Congreve rocket. See rocket: Congreve
Congreve, William 31–33, 35–37, 45, 50, 71, 72, 85, 297
Consolidated Aircraft Co. 170, 210
Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corp. 210
Constantinople 9
Constanzi, Giulio 130
Contreras, Battle of 62, 64
control center Golitsyno-2 (Krasnoznamensk) 282
control center, Yevpatoria 282
Convair 210–212, 215, 217, 221, 223, 228, 234, 235, 239, 243, 244, 253
cooling 122, 138, 239
    ablative 241, 243
    film 124, 145
    heat sink 239, 241, 243
    regenerative 145, 167, 174, 223, 249, 354
    transpiration 239
Cooper, Gordon 380
Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls 278
Coordinating Committee on Guided Missiles 230
Coordinating-Computational Center 282.
See also Space Flight Control Center (TsUP)
Coote, General 25, 26
Copenhagen 36, 42, 70, 73, 351
Copernican system 19, 87
Copernicus, Nicolaus 19–21, 94
Coralie 429
Corbeau, Jean 418
cordite 183, 267
Corman, Arthur 366
Cornell Aeronautical Laboratories 390
Cornwallis, Lord 27, 28
Corona 232, 253, 265, 281, 320–322, 381, 382, 385, 390, 391–393, 395–399, 401–409
Corporal 202, 203, 204
Corps, 20th, PLA 440
Corps of Engineers, Army 355
cosmodrome 298, 312, 318, 321, 323
cosmonautics 108, 111
Cosmos-1 311
Cosmos-4 414
Cosmos-112 323
Counter Intelligence Corps (CIC) 157
Courier, project 382
Cowes, Isle of Wight 433
Craigie, Laurence C. 400
Craney Island 48
Crawford, Alden R. 400
Crimea 83, 282
Crimean War 57, 60, 73, 82, 83
Crocco, Gaetano Arturo 130
cruise (winged) missile 221, 222, 311, 312
Crusade, Seventh 9, 10
Crusaders 9, 10
Cuba 71, 384
Cultural Revolution, Great Proletarian 442, 444
Cunningham, Ted S. 130
Curcio, J.A. 394
Curtiss-Wright 210
Cusack, Trevor 131
Cuxhaven 159
CZ-1 (LM-1).
See Chang Zheng (Long March)
space launcher
Czechoslovakia 130

D

D-1A 421, 423
Dalmatia 14
Damblanc, Louis 110, 130
Damietta 9, 10
Dane, Paul H. 176, 177
Daniel and Florence Guggenheim Foundation   118, 121
Daniel Guggenheim Fund for the Promotion of Aeronautics 118, 119
Danielis Chinatii 14
Danube river 78
Danzig (Dansic, Gdansk) 38, 73
d'Arcet, Joseph 36
Darmstadt, Germany 430
Data Analysis Center (ESDAC) 430
Davies, Merton E. 395
Davis, Jefferson 60, 66
Davis, Robert 357
Davout, Marshal 41
Dazzle 425
de Gaulle, Charles 420
De Havilland Propellers 428
De Ingenes 14
De Laval. See nozzle, converging-diverging (De Laval)
Dearborn, F. 366
Debus, Karl 128
Debus, Kurt H. 165, 305, 308
Defense Science and Technology Commission, PRC  438, 443
Defense Support Program (DSP) 233, 394
Defoe, Daniel 88
Delafield, Robert 60
Delhi, battle of 23
Delta 223, 253, 355, 397
Delta II 253, 461
Delta III 253
Delta IV 250, 253
Denmark 69, 70, 73, 74, 351, 430
Denmark, King of 74
Denver, Colo. 246
Department of Atomic Energy, India 447
Desaguliers, General 32
Detroit, Mich. 206, 244
Detroit Rocket Society 135
Dewey, Thomas E. 406
DF series (Dong Feng or East wind) 441
DF-1 441, 442
DF-2 441
DF-3 442
DF-4 442
DF-5 442
DF-6 442
DFH-1 (Dong Fong Hong)
418, 442, 443, 445–447
Diamant 418, 421
Diamant-A 418–423
Dieppe 12
Di Fontana, Giovanni 14
diethylenetriamine 360, 368
Directorate of Engineering Works, USSR 130th 312, 313
Discoverer, program 382, 397
Discoverer I 253, 401, 403
Discoverer XIII 403, 404
Discoverer XIV 404, 406
Discoverer XVIII 322
Dixon, Thomas 223
Dnepropetrovsk 285–288, 291
Dong Fong Hong (The East is Red) 445, 446, 447.   See also DFH-1 (Dong Fong Hong)
Dönitz, Admiral 158
Donovan, Allen 390
Doolittle, James H. (Jimmy) 132, 233, 341
Dora, concentration camp 151.  See also Mittelwerk and concentration camps
Dornberger, Walter R. 137, 138, 142, 143, 148, 153–157, 159, 165, 351
Douglas Aircraft Co. 175, 187, 188, 210, 241, 246, 251–253, 398
Douglas C-124 Globemaster 250
Douglas, Donald W. 132, 188
Downey, Calif. 210
Draper, Charles Stark (Doc) 238–240, 262
Draper Prize 240
Dryden, Hugh L. 132, 185
Dubin, Maurice 366
DuBridge, Lee A. 185
Dulles, Allen W. 339, 343, 393
Dulles, John Foster 386
Dunai-2 407
Dunn, Louis G. 202, 229, 233
DuPont 399
Durant III, Frederick C. 135
Dushkin, Leonid S. 272
Dutch Rocket Society 131
dynamic geodesy 264
Dzhusaly 312, 318

E

EA-41 112, 418, 419
Earth, planet 87–89, 93
Earth's rotation 128, 450, 451
East India Company 26
Eastern Air Lines 175
Eastern Space and Missile Center 305
Eastman Kodak 388, 390, 398, 399, 402
Easton, Roger L. 350, 374
Echo, project 382
Echo I 380
Echo II 397
eclipse 129
Ecole Polytechnique 112
Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. 379
Efremov, Nikolai I. 270, 272
Eggers Jr., A.J. 239, 242
Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. 179
Egypt 2, 72, 292
Egyptians 9
Ehricke, Krafft A. 249
Eighth Air Force, U.S. 155
Eisenhower, Dwight D. 229, 234, 244–246, 341, 343, 349, 351, 372, 375, 377, 378, 380, 382, 385–389, 391, 393, 402, 403, 409
El Centro, Calif. 303
El Paso, Tex. 164, 198, 302
El Telegrafo 64
Electric Boat Division, General Dynamics Corp. 258
elephant, war 23–26
Elliot, W.G. 43
Emeraude 421, 429
Emperor, Austrian Empire 74, 76
Emperor, Russian Empire 80
Energia launcher 337
Energia, RKK (Corporation)  281, 282, 286, 334, 337
Energia-Buran vehicle 337
Energomash. See NPO Energomash
engine, gimballed 121, 217, 354
engine, swiveling 213–215, 217
Engineering Experiment Station, Navy 172, 176
Eniwetok Atoll 225, 227
epicycle 19
Ercoupe 171, 173
Ernst Norrman Laboratories, Williams Bay, Wis. 357
Erving, J. 55
Esclangon, Felix 111
Esnault-Pelterie, Robert 91, 103, 106, 108–113, 126, 418
espionage, Soviet 180, 215, 278, 311, 379, 425
Estar 399
Eumenides-Orcus, canal 95
Europa space launcher 429, 430, 432
Europa-1 429, 431, 432
Europa-2 432
European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) 429
European Launcher Development Organization (ELDO) 429–432
European Space Agency (ESA) 417, 418, 430, 432, 462
European Space Research Institute (ESRIN) 430.   See also Scientific Laboratory (ESLAB)
European Space Research Organization (ESRO) 429, 430
Everglades, Fla. 249
Evian agreement 419
Explorer program 382
Explorer I 55, 165, 202, 207, 308, 344, 357, 358, 360, 364–372, 375, 376, 379, 418, 426
Explorer III 366
Explorer IV 366
Explorer-42 196
Explosives Act of 1875, Great Britain 131
export control, early 2

F

F-1 223
F4U Corsair 181
Fabry, Charles 111
Fairchild Aircraft Company 306
Fairchild Camera and Instrument Company (FCIC)  397, 398, 402
Fakel Machine-Building Design Bureau 279, 408
Farnborough 428, 430
Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) 180, 379
Feed Back, project 348
Feklisov, Alexander 180
Felt Jr., N. Elliot 353, 355
Fenwick, J.R. 55
Ferguson, Frank H. 353
Ferrié, Gustave 111
Fi-103 141, 147, 148, 151, 152. See also V-1
Fichot, E. 111
Fiedler, Willy 261
Fierst, Adolf L. 132
Fieseler Flugzeugbau, Kassel 147
Finland 84
fire arrow 2, 4, 7
fire spear 4
fire spear, flying 5
firearms 10, 24
firecracker 2, 3
firecrackers 455
fireworks 2, 11, 12, 16, 18, 85, 87, 435
fission bomb. See atomic bomb
Fitzgerald, Warren 132
Fitzpatrick, James C. 406
Flagstaff, Ariz. 97–99, 101, 102
flame duct 302, 310
Flammarion, Camille 95, 97, 100
Fleet, Reuben 170
Flemming, James 353
Florida 313, 315, 357, 365
Flushing (Vlissingen) 37
flying saucer. See unidentified flying object (UFO)
Fontana, Francesco 94
Ford Instrument Company 205, 251
Ford Motor Co. 179
Forman, Edward S. 168, 176, 177
Fort Bliss 159, 160, 163, 164, 197, 201, 202, 204, 207, 238
Fort de Vancia 112
Fort McHenry 51, 52
Fort McNair 57
Fort Meade 204
Fort Monmouth 358
Fort Monroe 58, 61
Fort Reno 62
Fort Strong 160
Fort Washington 51
Foyn, Svend 86
FR-1 423
France 417–419, 430, 432, 462
Franco-German Institute, Saint-Louis, Alsace 161
Frascati, Italy 430
Frederick, King 73
freedom of space 343, 375, 393
Freedom-7 382
French Academy of Sciences 108
French Aero Club 134
French Astronautical Group 134
French Astronomical Society 97, 110, 111, 126, 133
French Guiana 315
French Physical Society 109, 110, 126
Friedman, Herbert 199, 409
Ft. Bliss. See Fort Bliss
Ft. McHenry. See Fort McHenry
Ft. Monroe. See Fort Monroe
fuel
    Aerozine-50 247, 289, 429
    alcohol 215, 217, 223, 284
    alcohol and water 124, 125, 138, 144, 145, 189, 205, 269, 272
    aniline 172, 175, 177
    aniline and furfuryl alcohol 203, 219
    atomic hydrogen 112
    gasoline 112–114, 126, 172, 174
    hydrazine 247, 286
    hydrocarbon 104, 176
    hydrogen 109, 249
    hydyne 359, 368
    JP-4 397
    kerosene 205, 223, 246, 253, 286, 291, 293, 327, 354, 428, 433
    liquid hydrogen 34, 107, 124, 187, 189, 249, 253
    MMH 247
    monoethyaniline 203
    RP-1 228, 235, 252
    solidified gasoline 269
    turpentine 421
    UDMH 247, 253, 354, 397, 429, 444
    USO 397
Fuller, John 262
FZG 76. See Fi-103

G

Gagarin, Yuri A. 318, 344, 345, 347, 382, 384
Gaidukov, Lev M. 161
Galactic Radiation Background (GRAB) satellite 409–411
GALCIT. See Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
Galilei, Galileo 19–21, 94
Gamma 428
Gamow, George 185
Gang of Four 444
Gardner, Trevor 229, 230, 244, 341, 392, 402
Gas Dynamical Laboratory (GDL) 267, 268, 271
gas-generator 145
Gay-Lussac, Joseph-Louis 36
Gem Stones (Pierres Precieuses) 421
Gemini 307
Genappe 44
General Dynamics – Astronautics 249, 251, 253
General Dynamics Corporation 221, 235, 253
General Electric Company 157, 160, 178, 197, 202, 210, 234, 241, 244, 251, 252, 354, 397, 398
General Electric Research Laboratories 234
General Mills of Minneapolis, Minn. 380
General Motors 174, 221
GENETRIX, project 390, 401
Geneva 386, 430
Geneva summit, 1955 351, 385–387, 389
Genghiz Khan 5, 7
Genoa 10, 14
geoglyphs 460
Georgia Institute of Technology 118
geostationary orbit (GEO) 128, 129, 198, 323, 432
geosynchronous satellite 454.
See also geostationary orbit (GEO)
German academia and V-2 141
German Air Force (Luftwaffe) 139, 141, 147, 148, 194
German Army (Reichswehr) 137, 139, 141, 183
German rocketeers (Peenemünders) 156–165, 197, 201, 204, 207, 209, 211, 230, 238, 418
Germany 429, 430
Germany, Eastern 162, 164
Gestapo, German Secrete State Police 278
Getting, Ivan A. 185, 233, 235
Gheisk 82, 84
Gibson, Ralph E. 260
Gilruth, Robert R. 381
gimballed engine. See engine, gimballed
GIRD-09 268–270
GIRD-10 (GIRD-X) 268–270, 272, 273
Gleig, George R. 51, 54
Glenn, John 380, 384
Glenn L. Martin Co. 187, 210, 216, 221, 246, 247, 251, 253, 306, 311, 352, 353, 364, 392
Glenn Research Center, NASA 379
Glennan, T. Keith 378, 379, 380
Global Positioning System (GPS) 264, 413
Glushko, Valentin P. 91, 107, 108, 161, 267, 268, 273–275, 277, 279, 283, 284, 327, 336–338
Gobi desert 440
Goddard, George W. 398, 400
Goddard, Robert H. 91, 103, 106, 113, 114, 117–123, 126, 132, 167, 175, 176, 178, 278, 279, 458
Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA  123, 264, 302, 379, 381
Godwin, Frances (Bishop of Hereford) 87
Goebbels, Joseph 152
Goldsack, Stephen 71
Gonsales, Domingo.
See Godwin, Frances (Bishop of Hereford)
Goodman 167
Goodyear Aircraft 210
Görda 41, 43
Gorgas, Josiah 66
Göring, Hermann 152
Gorkii 275
Göttingen 194
Göttingen University 124, 169
GRAB. See Galactic Radiation Background (GRAB) satellite
Grabin, Vassilii G. 290
Græcus, Marcus 8
grain 34
Grand Bahama Island 357
Grand Central Rocket Company 254, 354, 358
Grand Turk 299, 357
gravitational field, Earth's 225, 264
Great Britain 250, 285, 417, 418, 423, 430, 432
Great Leap Forward 186, 444
Greece 69, 77
Greek fire 8, 9
Greeks, ancient 1, 87
Greenbelt, Md. 123, 379
Greenwich 91, 92
Greg, Percy 111
Gregory, Lee M. 168
Griggs, David 227
Grissom, Virgil I. 207, 307, 380, 384
Groton, Conn. 258
Gröttrup, Helmut 161–163, 275
Groups for Study of Jet Propulsion (GIRD), USSR   268–271, 273, 325, 326
GRU (Soviet military intelligence) 215, 278, 414.   See also espionage, Soviet
Gruntman, Alexander Yu. 312–314, 316
Gruntman, Mike. See author of this book
Grushin, Pyotr D. 279, 408
GSKB Spetsmash 283
Guadalajara, battle of 73
Guam 427, 442
Guernsey 183
Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory, California Institute of Technology   168–171, 176, 177, 179, 186, 187, 201
Guggenheim, Daniel 118, 119
Guggenheim, Harry F. 118, 119, 121
Guiana, French 420
Guiana Space Center 420
guidance 184, 190, 224, 226, 228, 238
guidance, inertial 146, 205, 222, 225, 238, 240, 252, 255, 262, 283, 286, 312
guidance, radio-inertial 238, 246
Guided Missile Development Division, ABMA 209
Guided Missile Research Division, R-W 233
Guided Missile Test Center, Point Mugu 302
Guier, William 264
Gulf of Carpentaria 434
Gulf War, 1991 292
gun 2, 12, 21
gun, naval 31, 32
gunpowder 1–4, 7, 9–11, 13, 17, 32, 33, 72, 115
gyroscope 138, 146, 222

H

H-bomb. See thermonuclear bomb
Haeussermann, Walter 364
Hagen, John P. 352, 355, 372
Haggerty, James C. 351
Hague, The 131
Haiti Victory 403
Hale, Edward Everett 91, 92
Hale rocket. See rocket: Hale
Hale, William 5, 56–58, 64, 72
Haley, Andrew G. 135, 176, 177, 344, 378
Halifax 148
Hall, Harvey 187
Halley, comet 93
Hamburg 73
Hamill, James P. 157, 159
Hammaguir 315, 419, 420, 422, 423
Hampden, Maine 47
Hampton, Va. 48, 302, 379
Hanna, Edward L. 130
Hansen, L. 135
Hardtack 207
Hardy, Don 434
Harris, Arthur 148
Harris, William R. 395
Hart, lake 431
Harvard University 390
Harvard University Observatory 390, 398, 400
Harz Mountains 149, 157, 159
Havana, Cuba 357
Havre de Grace, Md. 47
Hawaii 357
HDA 397
Healy, Roy 132
Hedgehog 183
Heidelager 153
Heidelberg University 124
Heinisch, Kurt 125
Heinrich, Jeff 427
Heisenberg , Werner 146
heliosphere 455
Helsingfors (Helsinki) 84
Henderson, Charles B. 258, 259
Hendrickson, Robert C. 221
Henize, Karl C. 357
Henry II 8
Henschel Aircraft Company 158
Hercules Powder Company   174, 181, 254, 259, 260, 265
Hermann, Rudolf 139
Hermes A-1 202
Hermes, project 157, 160, 197, 199, 202
Hero (Heron) of Alexandria 1
Hersey, Irwin 341
Herter, Christian 339, 341
Hesperia asteroid 93
Hickman, Clarence N. 117, 178, 260
high altitude test vehicle (HATV) 187, 249
High Speed Flight Station, NACA 379
high test peroxide (HTP) 428
high-velocity aircraft rockets (HVAR) 181
Himmler, Heinrich 151
Hind, Captain 71
Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. 448
Hiroc 212. See also MX-774
Hiroshima 284
Hirsch, André Louis 110, 111
Hitler, Adolf 141, 142, 152, 155, 157
Hjelm, island 73
HMS Erebus 50–52
HMS Harrier 83
HMS Mariner 47
Hoffman, Samuel K. 223
Hohmann transfer 128
Hohmann, Walter 127
Holland 43
Hollywood 379
Holy Moses.   See high-velocity aircraft rockets (HVAR)
Houston, Texas 381
howitzer 76
Howitzer and Rocket Battery 58, 59, 61, 62, 64
howitzer, mountain 58
Hsinhua (Xinhua) News Agency 442, 446
Hueco Range 202
Hueneme, Port 196
Hugh L. Dryden Flight Research Facility, NASA 379
Hughes Aircraft Company 210, 233, 234, 238
Hughes, Howard 233
Hülagü 11
Humphries, J. 135
Hundred Years War 16
Hungarian Campaign 76
Hungary 69, 76
Hungary, King of 14
Huningen, siege of 76
Hunsacker, Jerome C. 132, 192
Huntsville, Ala. 126, 127, 164, 165, 171, 204, 205, 209, 211, 238, 364, 372, 379
Huzel, Dieter 157, 164
Hyac 398
Hycon Manufacturing Company 392, 402
Hyde, Joshua B. 58
Hyder Ali, (Hydur Ali, Haidar 'Ali Khan) 24–27
hydrazine 458. See also fuel: hydrazine
hydrogen, atomic 112
hydrogen bomb. See thermonuclear bomb
hydrogen, liquid 34, 107, 187–189, 249
hydrogen peroxide 145, 147, 153, 214, 354, 428
hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) 259
hydyne 359, 368
Hyland, Lawrence A. 229
Hynek, J. Allen 357
hypergolic propellant 174–176

I

I.G. Farbenindustrie 258
Iberian Peninsula 10, 37
IBM 704 357
ignition 172
ignition in weightlessness 235, 236, 246, 249, 344
Igor, Prince 12
Ikara 426
India 2, 8, 13, 23–25, 31, 54, 69, 72, 357, 417, 418, 447, 448
Indian National Committee for Space Research 447
Indian snow 2
indigo 175
infrared sensing of missile launch 394
inhibited red fuming nitric acid (IRFNA) 175, 253
Inkerman 84
Inner Mongolia 442
Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP) 348
Institute of Space & Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan   435, 436, 438
Institute Nordhausen 161–163
Institute of Aeronautical Sciences (IAS) 132.
See also Institute of Aerospace
Sciences (IAS)
Institute of Aerospace Sciences (IAS) 132
Institute of Geophysics, University of California 348
Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo 435
Institute of Machine and Electricity, PRC 442
Institute of Rocket Engine Technology, PRC 444
Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science, Japan 436
Instrumentation Laboratory, MIT   238, 240, 251, 252, 262
Interagency Chemical Rocket Propulsion Group 224
intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) 228
intercontinental ballistic missile system (IBMS) 228.
See also intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM)
International Astronautical Federation, Eighth Congress 361
International Astronautical Federation, Sixth Congress 351
International Astronautical Federation (IAF)   135, 179, 378
International Aviation Federation 318
International Council of Scientific Unions 332, 348
International Geophysical Year 331–333, 335, 341, 343, 348, 351, 356, 419, 426, 436
International Institute of Space Law 179
International Polar Year 332, 348
interplanetary communications (travel) 133, 268
interstellar flight 113, 128, 455, 460
interstellar medium 455
Interstellar Probe 455
Iogansen, Second Lieutenant 81
Iran 292, 311, 357
Iraq 23, 292
Ireland 430
Isaev, Aleksei M. 161, 282
Island lagoon 424
Israel 184, 273, 292, 417, 418, 420, 451, 453, 454
Israel Aircraft Industries (IAI) 451
Israel Military Industries 453
Israel Space Agency (ISA) 451
Italian Navy 126
Italy 10, 69, 76, 87, 93, 130, 209, 417, 430
Itek Corporation 175, 390, 397–399, 402
Itokawa, Hideo 435, 436, 438, 448

J

J-2 223
Jackson, Andrew 53, 54
JANNAF 224
Japan 7, 21, 130, 158, 184, 226, 357, 417, 418, 429, 435, 436, 440, 441
Java 8
JB-2 179, 180
Jenkins, Thomas 352
jet engines 162
Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) 169, 170, 174, 188, 200, 202–204, 209, 221, 249, 349, 364, 367, 371, 377, 379
Jet Propulsion Scientific Research Institute (RNII), USSR
271, 273, 274, 287
jet-assisted takeoff (JATO) 167, 169–172,
174–177, 179
jetavator 261
Jewett, Frank B. 178
Jiuquan 440
Joe-4 230
Johannesburg, South Africa 357
John of Pian de Carpini, Friar 11
Johns Hopkins University 218
Johnson, Clarence L. "Kelly" 249, 391
Johnson, Lyndon B. 340
Johnson, Roy 395
Johnson Space Center, NASA 381
Johnston, Herrick L. 188
Johnston Island 207
Joint Long Range Proving Ground 303, 304
Joint Staff Center for Special Missile Testing 419
Joinville, Jean de 9
Joyce, J. Wallace 348
JP-4 223, 397
Jungert, Wilhelm 160
Jungklaass, F.K. 135
Juno 165, 344
Juno 1 308, 344, 361, 364, 365, 368, 370, 418
Jupiter 165, 207–209, 223, 250, 251, 254, 359
Jupiter A 209
Jupiter C 209, 308, 333, 343, 344, 348, 359–362, 364, 372, 426
Jupiter, planet 19

K

Kagoshima 436
Kagoshima Space Center 436, 437
K'ai-fung-fu 5, 6
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics 146
Kaiser Wilhelm Society 194
Kalinin, Mikhail I. 282
Kaliningrad 280, 282. See also Podlipki
Kaliningrad (Western USSR) 287
Kaluga 103, 104
Kalugin, Oleg D. 278
Kamchatka Peninsula 301, 312, 318, 329, 330, 335
kamikaze 7, 184, 435
Kammler, Hans 151, 157
Kansas City, Missouri 174
Kaplan, Joseph 348, 349
Kappa series 436, 437
Kappa-6 436
Kapustin Yar (Kap-Yar) 277, 283, 284, 287, 290, 301, 310–313, 406, 407, 448, 449
Karaganda 312
Karnataka state 25
Kartmazov, engineer 76
Katyusha 184, 271, 273, 274, 319
Kawasaki 435
Kazakhstan 80, 81, 301, 312, 319, 323, 407
Kazalinsk 318
Kazan' 275
KB Khimmash 281, 282
KB Makeyev 287
KB Salyut 287
KB-11 275
Kefauver, Estes 362
Keldysh, Mstislav V. 338
Kellogg, William 394
Kennedy, John F. 169, 222, 381, 383, 384, 393, 406
Kennedy Space Center, NASA 165, 305
Kenya 196, 266
Kepler, Johannes 19, 20, 21, 87, 94
Kershner, Richard B. 263, 264
Key, Francis Scott 52, 53
KGB 180, 215, 278, 379.  See also espionage, Soviet
KH 399
KH-1 399, 405, 407
KH-3 402
KH-4 402, 405, 407
KH-4A 402
KH-4B 402
KH-5 405–407
Khariton, Yulii B. 275
Khimki 279, 287, 295, 337
Khrunichev, GKNPT 287
Khrushchev, Nikita S. 285, 286, 288, 290, 323, 339, 344, 351, 385, 387, 389, 391, 392
Khrushchev, Sergei N. 288, 290, 323, 339, 389
Khyber pass 24
Killian Jr., James R. 234, 341, 343, 344, 350, 377
Killian Report 234, 351
King 225
Kirghyzstan 80
Kiruna 430
Kislovodsk 273
Kistiakowsky, George B. 227, 229
Kisun'ko, Grigorii V. 330, 408
Klager, Karl 258, 259
Kleimenov, Ivan T. 273, 274
Klemin, Alexander 132
Klyuchi 335
Knopow, Joseph J. 394
Kochel 160, 161, 418
Koelle, H.H. 135
Kohnstein Mountain 149
Kokand Khanate 81
Kolyma region 275
Kondratyuk, Yurii 130
Konstantinov, Konstantin I. 80
Kookaburra 426
Korea 7, 8
Korea, North 195, 292
Korea, Republic of 195
Korean War 195, 309, 390
Korneev, Leonid S. 272
Korolev (town) 280, 282. See also Podlipki
Korolev, Sergei P. 91, 104, 108, 161–163, 215, 268–270, 272, 274, 275, 279, 280, 283, 284, 285, 286, 288–290, 316, 325–327, 329, 330, 332, 333, 335–339, 343, 344, 414, 440
Korolyov 269. See also Korolev, Sergei P.
Kosberg, Semyon A. 344
Kosmos 287, 288
Kossiakoff, Alexander 260
Kourou 420, 432, 450
Kozlov, Dmitrii I. 293, 294
Krasnogorsk 414
Krasnoyarsk Machine-Building Plant 295
Krasnoyarsk-26 294.
See also Zheleznogorsk (Krasnoyarsk-26)
Krause, Ernest E. 199
Krauss, Max 130, 167
Kronstadt insurrection 271
Krupp Naval Testing Ground 159
Kublai Khan 7, 435
Kubrick, Stanley 129
Kuibyshev (Samara) 287, 293, 294, 339, 415
Kummersdorf Artillery Range 137, 139, 140, 278
Kurchatov, Igor V. 215
Kuznetsov, Viktor I. 283, 284, 336
Kyeser, Conrad 14, 17
Kyushu island 436, 437
Kzyl-Orda 81, 312. See also Ak Mechet'
Kzyl-Orda-50 81

L

La Atalaya 64
La Renardière 112
La Rochelle 36
Lafarge 418
Laika 344
Lambda series 436, 437
Lambda-3 437
Lambda-4S 418, 437, 438
Lamphere, Robert J. 180
Lampland, Carl O. 98, 99
Lancaster 148
Land, Edwin 390, 402
Landes Test Center, France 419
Lane, H.B. 39, 40, 52
Lange, Fritz 126
Langemak, Georgii E. 273, 274
Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, NACA 191, 302, 379, 381
Langley Research Center, NASA 379, 380
Laplace, Pierre-Simon 94
Lark 184, 306
Las Cruces, New Mex. 198
Lasser, David 88, 130, 132, 168
Latour, Arsene 54
Latvia 273
launch, dual 409
launch, from ship 196
Launch Operations Center, NASA 305
Launcher 6A complex 431
Laurel, Md. 218
Lauritsen, Charles C. 229
Lavochkin NPO 279, 295
Lavochkin, Semyon A. 279, 311
Lawrance, Charles 132
Lawrence, Ernest 226
Lawrence, Evan 259
Lawrence, John 50, 51
Lawrence, Lovell 132, 174, 175
Lawrence Radiation Laboratory 412
LCM 181
Le Prieur, missile 74, 128
Le Prieur, Y.P.G. 128
Lebanon 184
Lee, Robert E. 62, 64
Leghorn, Richard S. 388, 390, 402
Legnica (Legnitz), battle of 8
Legnitz. See Legnica
Leipzig (Leipsic) 41, 43
LeMay, Curtis 185, 187, 188, 400
Lemkin, William 132
Lenin, Vladimir Il'yich 347
Leningrad 267, 268, 287, 414.
See also St. Petersburg
Leningrad State University 267
Leninsk 321. See also Tyuratam
Levison, Walter J. 402
Lewis Flight Propulsion Center, NACA 379
Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory, NACA 249
Ley, Willy 128
Library of Congress 104, 118
Liège 154
Lima, Peru 71, 357
Lin Biao (Piao) 442
Lindau 194
Lindbergh, Charles A. 119, 121, 210
Lindenberg, Hans 156, 157
Lindsay, Frank 402
liquid fire. See Greek fire
liquid injection thrust vector control 261
Liquid Propellant Information Agency 224
Lisbon 12
Little Ben/Longshot 183
Littleton, Colo. 247
Livermore National Laboratory 256
Liverpool 131
local vertical 239
Lockheed Aircraft Corp. 239, 246, 253, 254, 258, 260, 261, 364, 392, 396, 397
Lockheed Martin Corporation 253
Loebell, E. 130
Loeser, G. 135
Loki 349
London 131, 134, 147, 148, 152, 154
Long, Everett 132
Long March 1 418, 443.   See also Chang Zheng (Long March) space launcher
Long March space launcher.   See Chang Zheng (Long March) space launcher
Long Tom 426
Longstreth, Bevis 174
LOPGAP 183
Loran-C 263
Lorenz, H. 128
Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory 256, 412
Los Angeles, Calif. 118, 223, 323
Los Angeles Times 364
Louis IX 9, 10
Louisiana 47
Lovett 303
Lowell Observatory 97, 98, 101, 102
Lowell, Percival 95, 97, 99–102
Lozino-Lozinsky, Gleb E. 337
LR-89 246
LR-89-NA-3 236
LR105-NA-5 236
LR87 246
LSM(R) 182
LTV Aerospace and Defense Company 266
Lucian of Samosata 87
Lucknow 69
Ludovico Ariosto 87
Lundquist, Charles A. 127
Lundy's Lane, Battle of 48
Lusser, Robert 147
Luxemburg 154
Lyon 112

M

M-8 273
M-13 273, 274. See also Katyusha
M-45 299
M. W. Kellog 210
M.K. Yangel State Design Office “Yuzhnoe” 285
M.V. Keldysh Research Center 271, 287
MA-1 223, 236
MA-2 223, 236
MA-3 223, 236
MA-5 223, 236
MacDonald, Duncan 398, 400
Mace 221
Mach number 34, 139
Mackenzie's Farm 84
Mackey, Robert 353
Mackinnon, Lieutenant 75
Madison, James 52
Mahmud, Sultan 23
Maine 47
Makeyev Design Bureau 287, 291.
See also SKB-385
Makeyev, Viktor P. 291–293
Malenkov, Georgii M. 385
Malina, Frank J. 110, 168, 172, 173, 176, 177, 202
Malkara 426
Malyshev, Vyacheslav A. 325
Manchester Astronautical Association 131
Manchester Interplanetary Society 131
Manhattan Project 158, 244
Manned Orbital Laboratory (MOL) 248
Manned Spacecraft Center, NASA 381.
See also Johnson Space Center, NASA
Manning, Laurence E. 132, 167
Manring, Edward R. 366
Manson, Charles P. 132
Mao Tse-tung. See Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung)
Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung) 186, 187, 438–442, 444–446
March Field, Calif. 172, 173
Marconi 428, 434
Marine Corps, U.S. 181
marine fire. See Greek fire
Mariner 2 380
Mariner 4 101, 102, 380
Mariupol 84
Markarian, Donald J. 353, 355
Marquardt Aviation 210
Mars 93, 94, 96–98, 100–102, 109, 380, 460
Mars, canals on 93–97, 100, 102
Marseilles 83
Marsh, David L. 400
Marshall, George C. 171
Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA 165, 171, 305, 379
Martin, Glenn L. 132
Martin Marietta 253
Maryland 356
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 118, 191, 234
Massingbird-Turner 78
Matador 221, 246, 306
Materiel Command, Army Air Forces 179, 202
Mathison, Charles G. "Moose" 404
Matra 421, 423
Max Planck Society 194
Max-Planck-Institute for Physics of the Stratosphere 194
Max-Planck-Institute for Aeronomy 194
Mayak-2 311
Mayo, Reid 409
Mazur, Daniel G. 352, 353
MB-1 223
MB-3 252
MBT Division, IAI 451
McClellan, George B. 60, 63
McClure, Frank 264
McCone, John 393
McDonnell Aircraft Company 175, 210, 384
McDonnell-Douglas Co. 221, 253
McElroy, Neil H. 364
McGregor, Tex. 254
McMahon, Brien 193
McNash, C.W. 131
Me 163b 428
Medaris, John B. 208, 209, 211, 220, 333, 352, 362, 364, 372, 377, 378
Mediterranean sea 35, 451
Melbourne, Victoria 133
Melot, Henri F. 130
Mengel, John T. 350, 352, 353
Menzies, Robert 425
Mercer, A.C. 39, 44
Mercury, planet 19, 93
Mercury program 380–382
Meshchersky, Ivan V. 106
Mestre 14
Metz 73
Meudon Observatory 102
Mexicali 303
Mexican (Congreve) rockets 61, 64, 70
Mexican War 55, 58, 62, 64, 66, 82
Mexico 49, 69–71, 73, 98, 102, 164
Mexico City 58, 98
Miass 287, 291
Michigan Ordnance Production Plant 207
Microlock 365, 368
micrometeorite 366, 367
MIDAS. See Missile Detection and Alarm System (MIDAS)
Middle East 82
Mike 227
Mikhailovskoye Artillery School 78
Milan observatory 93
Milburn, Lessiter C. 132
Military Academy, West Point 59, 60, 62, 116
Miller, Fred 172
Millikan, Clark B. 132, 173, 190, 229
Millikan, Robert A. 169
Minicard 402
Ministry of Space Industry, PRC 440
Minitrack 337, 350, 355–358, 364
Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co. 354
Minuteman 172, 232, 253, 254, 265, 289, 308
Mirabe, valley of 71
Miranda 434
Mishin, Vassilii P. 161, 284, 327, 337
missile defense 279, 291, 301, 319, 330, 407, 408, 411
Missile Detection and Alarm System (MIDAS)  394, 395, 396
Missile Firing Laboratory 305, 308
missile gap 226, 388, 404, 406
Missile Systems Division, Lockheed 394, 398
Mitchell, Elliot 259
Mitsubishi 435
MITT (A.D. Nadiradze Design Bureau) 287
Mittelwerk 140, 149–152, 154, 156, 157, 159, 160, 165
Mittelwerk and concentration camps 150–152
Mk II 328
Mk-2 241, 243
Mk-5 225, 226, 228
MLM Division, IAI 453
model airway 118
Moffett Field, Calif. 239, 379
Molino del Rey, Battle of 62
Molniya 287, 294
Molotov, Vyacheslav 141
Mongol troops 8, 11, 435
Mongols 5, 7–9, 11
Monino 281
monoethyaniline 203
monomethylhydrazine (MMH) 247
Montagne, Pierre 110, 130
Monte Caseros, Battle of 71, 83
Moon 57, 87–92, 103, 109, 112, 117, 118, 253,
302, 339, 382–384, 458
Moore, William 42, 106, 116
Mordecai, Alfred 55, 58, 60, 61
Morrison, Noel S. 131
Morros, Boris 379
Morse code 93
mortar 31
Morton, Peter 426, 434
Moscow 103, 104, 133, 162, 163, 180, 268, 270, 287, 408, 441, 442, 457
Moscow Aviation Institute (MAI) 283, 440
Moscow Physical-Technical Institute (MFTI) 283
Moscow State University (MGU) 283
Moscow Technical Institute of Forestry (MLTI) 281, 283
Mosquito 147, 148, 155
Mount Wilson, Calif. 114, 117
Moureu, Henri 161, 418
Mrazek, Willie 364
Mt. Elba, Woomera 425
Mu series 436, 437
Munich 123, 124, 157
Mur, T. 135
Muroc Air Force Base, Calif. 176.
See also Edwards Air Force Base, Calif.
MX-774 210, 212–218, 228, 235, 238
MX-1593 327
MX-1953 228
Myasishchev, V.M. 311
Myasishchev-4 "Bison" 392
Mylar 399
Mysore 24–27, 29
Mysore war 27, 28

N

N-1 337
NAA-150-200-S-3D 208
Nadiradze, A.D. 287
Nakajima Aircraft Company 435
Nakhabino testing grounds 269, 270, 272
naphta 9, 11
Naples 94
Napoleon 29, 33, 38, 43, 72, 73
NASA. See National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Nasca 461
National Academy of Engineering 240
National Academy of Sciences 171, 178, 192, 255, 256, 348, 349, 372
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA)  180, 191, 192, 302, 377, 379
National Aeronautics and Space Act 378
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)   123, 165, 169, 171, 194, 198, 220, 233, 240, 305, 378, 379, 381
National Atomic Museum, Albuquerque, New Mex.  413
National Center of Space Studies (CNES), France 420
National Center of Telecomm. Research, France 423
National Defense Research Committee (NDRC)  178, 191, 260
National Intelligence Estimate for Guided Missiles 406
National Medal of Science 169
National Office of Aerospace Studies and Research  421
National Photographic Interpretation Center (NPIC)  319
National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) 391, 402
National Science Foundation 350, 351
National Security Act of 1947 192
National Security Agency (NSA) 180, 409
National Security Council 234, 339, 351, 393, 395
National Space Activities Council, Japan 437
National Space Development Center, Japan 436
National War College 57
Nations, Battle of the 43.   See also Battle of the Nations
Nature (magazine) 432
Nauka i Zhizn’ 343
Navaho 205, 221–223, 231, 238, 263, 304, 306, 311
Naval Academy, U.S. 167
Naval Industrial Reserve Aircraft Plant (NIRAP) 206
Naval Ordnance Air Missile Test Center, Point Mugu  184
Naval Ordnance Station, Indian Head, Md. 181
Naval Ordnance Test Station (NOTS) 257, 269, 302
Naval Powder Factory 181
Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) 199, 200, 216, 350, 352, 353, 358, 374, 379, 394, 409, 410
Naval Shipyard, San Francisco 262
navigation 92, 190, 239, 264, 456, 458
navigation, inertial 239, 240, 263.
See also guidance, inertial
Navy Navigation Satellite System (NNSS) 264, 356.  See also Transit, Navy Navigation Satellite System (NNSS)
Navy Yard, Philadelphia 196
Near East 8, 11
Nebel, Rudolf 125, 128, 138
Nebelwerfer 183
Nedelin, Mitrofan I. 322
Ne’eman, Yuval 451
Nesmeyanov, Alexander 331
Nesterenko, Aleksei I. 317
Netherlands, The 69, 131, 429, 430
Netherlands West Indies 357
Neubert, Erich W. 160
New Haven, Conn. 168
New Mexico 357
New Orleans, battle of 52, 54
New Orleans, La. 47, 159
New York 47, 130, 160, 168, 180
New York City 323
New York Herald Tribune 132
New York station, KGB 180
New York Stock Exchange 364
New York Times 117, 118, 363, 364
New York University 118
Newell, Homer E. 349, 352
Newton, Isaac 19, 20, 94
Nie Rongzhen (Nieh Jung-Chen) 438, 439, 443
Niedersachswerfen 149
Nieh Jung-Chen. See Nie Rongzhen (Nieh Jung-Chen)
Nieuport Scout 128
Nigeria 365
NII Kosmos 281, 282
NII-1 271
NII-4 281, 282, 317, 326
NII-10 283
NII-88 162, 280, 282–285
NII-380 414
NII-885 283
NIIP-5. See Scientific-Research Test Range N.5
NIIT 281, 282
NIITP 271, 287
Nike 202, 204
Nike Ajax 219
Nike-Apache 447
Nikolaev 84
Nikolaev, Andrian 347
Nile river 9, 72
Nimbus 1 397
Ninth Air Force, U.S. 155
niter 2. See also saltpeter
nitric acid 175
nitric acid, concentrated 175
nitrocellulose 173, 183
nitrogen dioxide 175
nitrogen tetroxide (NTO).  See oxidizer: nitrogen tetroxide (NTO)
nitroglycerin 173, 183, 259
Nixon, Richard M. 406
Nobska study 255, 256
Nomura, T. 437
Noordung, Hermann. See Potocnik, Hermann
Noordwijk, the Netherlands 430
Nord-Aviation 423, 429
Nordhausen 140, 150, 154, 161
Nordhausen, Lager 151
Norfolk, Va. 48
Normandy 152, 155
North Africa 112, 178, 181, 418
North America 37, 38, 47
North American Aviation 187, 205, 208, 210, 221, 223, 228, 251, 392
North Arlington, N.J. 174
North Sea 159
Northrop Aircraft Company 210, 221, 222, 238, 239
Northrop, John K. 132
Northrop-Grumman 233
Norway 430
nose cone 209, 213–215, 239, 241–243, 252, 253, 256, 330, 331.   See also ablation; cooling: ablative; cooling: heat sink; cooling: transpiration
Novo-Kazalinsk 312
Novocherkasks 275
nozzle 1, 34, 45, 56, 104, 107, 167, 249
nozzle, converging-diverging (De Laval) 34, 112, 117, 144
nozzle, rotatable 259, 261
NPO AM 287
NPO Energomash 277, 279, 337. See also OKB-456
NPO IT 282
NPO Lavochkin. See Lavochkin NPO
NPO Mashinostroeniya 287
NPO Molniya 337
NPO PM 294, 295.  See also OKB-1, Eastern Branch N.2
nuclear weapon, boosted 230
nuclear weapons 184, 190, 195, 198, 204, 205, 207, 215, 221, 224, 226–228, 241, 255, 256, 261, 284, 319, 331, 344, 385, 411, 442, 444
Nunn, Joseph 357
Nürnberg 127
Nürnberg Trial 150

O

Obara, Tsunendo 130
Oberammergau 140, 157, 158
Oberth, Hermann 91, 103, 106, 110, 123–127, 138, 460
Object D 332, 334, 344
Object PS 334
Ocracoke Inlet, N.C. 48
Odessa 268
Odoric, Friar 11
Ocenášek, Ludvík 130
Oesterwinter, C. 135
Ofeq-1 418, 451–453
Ofeq-3 452, 454
Ofeq-5 454
Office of Naval Research 349
Office of Scientific Research and Development  173, 191–193
Ohio State University, Columbus 188, 249
Ohsumi (satellite) 418, 437, 438
Ohsumi Peninsula 437
oil 145
OKB Fakel 287
OKB-1 280, 285, 290, 291, 295, 326, 332, 344, 414, 415
OKB-1, Branch N.3 293, 294, 415
OKB-1, Eastern Branch N.2 294, 295
OKB-10 295. See also OKB-1, Eastern Branch N.2
OKB-154 344
OKB-301 279
OKB-456 277, 279, 283, 327
OKB-586 285, 291
Okhtensk Gunpowder Works 78
Okinawa 181
Old Faithful. See beach barrage rockets (BBR)
Old Point Comfort, Va. 58, 61
Old Testament v, 2, 103, 239
Omsk 287
one-and-one-half-stage design 236, 327
ONERA 161
Ontario 47
Ontario, Lake 48
open skies 351, 387–389
Orbiter, Project 348–350, 352, 359, 361
Ordnance Contract to California Institute of Technology (ORDCIT)  201, 202
Ordnance Department 55, 58–61, 64
Ordnance Department, General Electric 262
Ordnance Department, German Army (Reichswehr)  137
Ordway III, Frederick I. 125
Orenburg 316, 319, 321
Organ Mountains 198
Orleans 16
orthicon 392
Osborn, Captain 82
Oslo Report 147
Osman, Sheriff 70
Ostashkov 162
Oswego 48
Ottoman Sultan 82
Overhage, Carl F.P. 388
OXCART, project 391
oxidizer
    HDA 397
    high test peroxide (HTP) 428
    hydrogen peroxide 433
    inhibited red-fuming nitric acid (IRFNA) 253, 286, 397
    liquid oxygen 34, 107, 112–114, 124, 126, 138, 144, 174, 187, 189, 205, 215, 217, 223, 228, 235, 246, 249, 252, 253, 269, 272, 284, 289, 327, 354, 368, 428
    nitric acid 203, 253, 286, 291, 293, 421, 444
    nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) 247, 286, 289, 429
    oxygen 104, 109, 205
    red-fuming nitric acid (RFNA) 172, 175–177, 203, 219, 286
    tetranitromethane 113
    white-fuming nitric acid 354
    oxygen, liquid 34, 107, 143, 145, 153, 209, 431

P

P-6 421
P-80 Shooting Star, Lockheed 180
Pacific Missile Facility, Bangor, Wash. 262
Pacific Rocket Society 135
Pad 14, Cape Canaveral 297
Pad 16, Cape Canaveral 248, 308
Pad 17B, Cape Canaveral 252
Padua, Lord of 14
Palmachim Air Force Base 453
Panama Canal 442
Panzerfaust 183
Panzerschreck 183
Paperclip, project 157, 158, 165, 201, 210, 258
parachute 121
Paraguay 69–71
Paraná river 75
Paris 10, 102, 134, 150, 154, 161, 278
Parker, H.S. 117, 178
Parsons, John W. 168, 176, 177
Pasadena, Calif. 170, 179, 392
Passman, Sidney 394
Pasteur Institute 150
Patrick Air Force Base 228, 305, 333, 352
Patrick, Joseph C. 174
Patrick, Mason M. 305
Patriot 292
Patuxent River 49
Pavlograd Mechanical Plant 287
Paynter, Lieutenant 70
Peacekeeper 240
Pearl Harbor 174, 340, 341, 385, 406, 462
Pecheux, General 41
Peenemünde 139, 141, 147, 148
Peenemünde East 141.  See also Peenemünde rocket center
Peenemünde rocket center 126, 137, 139–142, 146–149, 151, 153–156, 160, 161, 250, 298, 351
Peenemünde West 141, 147.  See also Peenemünde rocket center
Pegasus 450
Pendray, G. Edward 130, 132
Pendray, Mrs. 132
Peninsular Campaign 38, 43
Pennsylvania Railroad Company 60
People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs (NKVD) 274. See also KGB
People’s Liberation Army (PLA) 440–442, 444
People's Republic of China (PRC) 186, 187, 195, 417, 418, 429, 438
Peoria, Ill. 130, 168
Peoria Rocket Association 130
Perel'man, Yakov I. 107, 130
Perigee-Apogee System (PAS) 432
Perkin, Richard S. 390, 392
Perkin-Elmer 390, 392, 402
Perl, William 180
Perovsk. See Ak-Mechet'
Perovskii, V.A. 81
Perrin, Jean 111
Pershing 165, 308
Persia 7
Peru 69–71, 357, 461
Peter-and-Paul Fortress 267
petrary 9
Philadelphia 244
Phillips Petroleum 254
photographic film 396, 398, 399, 401, 415
Piasecki Helicopter Company 175
Pickering, William H. 185, 202, 367, 371, 372
Pierce, H. Franklin 132, 167, 168, 174, 175
Pilyugin, Nikolai A. 161, 283, 284, 336
Pilz, Wolfgang 161
Pinto Branch, Allegany Ordnance Plant 260
Pinyin system 187
Pioneer 382
Pioneer 1 233, 253
Pioneer 10 233
Pioneer 11 233
Pisa 10
Pisco 71
Pitt, William 33
planets 87, 89, 96, 103, 112, 128
Plant N.88 280
Plant N.586 285
Plant Progress 287, 293
Plattsburg 49
Plesetsk 301, 310, 317, 323, 406
Pluto 97, 299, 455
Pobedonostsev, Yurii A. 162, 268, 269, 270
Podlipki 162, 279, 280–283, 287, 290, 337
Poe, Edgar Alan 88
pogo effect 455
Poinsett, Joel R. 55
Point Arguello 309
Point Loma 213
Point Mugu, Calif. 196
Poland 8, 69, 110, 112, 130, 139, 141, 153, 160
Polaris 172, 193, 207, 222, 240, 254–263, 289, 308, 429
Polaris A1 257, 265
Polaris A2 260
Polaris A3 260, 262
Polaroid 390
Polk, James 58
Polo, Marco 11
polybutadiene 259
polyester 259
Polyot 287
polyurethane 258
Pomerania 140
Poppel, Theodor A. 160
Poroshkov, Vladimir V. 316, 318
Porter, Richard W. 157
Portugal 38, 69
Poseidon 240, 308
potassium nitrate 2
potassium perchlorate 172
Potoènik, Hermann 128
Potomac 50, 51, 57
Potsdam Conference 385
power (system), spacecraft 129, 190, 456
Powers, Francis Gary 322, 392, 404
Practice-1 447
Prague Observatory 19
Prandtl, Ludwig 169
Pratt and Whitney 210, 249
Pratt, Fletcher 132
Pravda, official Communist Party daily  331, 335, 339, 351, 384
Preparatory Commission, ESRO 430
President's Scientific Advisory Committee (PSAC)  377
Primakov, Evgeny M. 278
Princeton University, Palmer Physical Laboratory 113
Private 202–204
Private F 204
Prix REP-Hirsch. See REP-Hirsch Award
prograde orbit 451
Project Orbiter. See Orbiter, Project
propaganda, Soviet 164, 191, 339, 347
propellant, cryogenic 298
propellant, hypergolic 174, 175, 247
propellant, solid
    "asphalt" 172
    composite 169, 172, 258
    double-base 173, 259, 260
    HMX 173
    RDX 173
    fuel
        aluminum 173, 258, 259
    fuel and binder
        HTPB 259
        polybutadiene 259
        polyester 259
        polyurethane 258, 259
        roofing tar 172
        Thiokol 172, 174, 259
    oxidizer
        ammonium perchlorate 259
        potassium perchlorate 172
propellant utilization 238
Prospero 418, 433, 434
Proton 287, 290
proximity fuze 218
Prussia 18, 56, 57, 76
PS-1 334. See also Object PS; Sputnik 1
Ptolemaic system 19
Ptolemy, Claudius 19
Puckett, Allen E. 229
Puerto Rico 299
Pugwash movement 390
pump, propellant 122
Purcell, Edward M. 185, 390
Pushover, Operation 196
pyrotechnics 2, 11

Q

QB-17 204
Qian Xuesen. See Tsien, Hsue-Shen (Qian Xuesen)
Quarles, Donald A. 343, 350, 352, 395
quickmatch 74
Quito, Equador 356, 357

R

R-1 283–285, 289, 291, 440
R-2 284, 289, 440, 441
R-5 289, 311, 441
R-5M 265, 284
R-7 236, 287, 289, 293, 311, 312, 318, 323, 325–333, 339, 344, 376, 418, 441
R-9A 289, 322
R-11 289, 291, 292
R-11FM 291–293
R-12 286, 288, 289, 318, 344, 407, 441
R-14 288, 289, 318
R-16 289, 322
R-17 292
R-36 288, 289
R0 433
R1 433
R2 434
R3 434
Rabe Institute 161, 162
Raborn Jr., William (Red) 254, 255, 261
radar 148, 183, 235, 311, 403, 404, 407–409, 421, 423, 425
radar, Hen House 407
radiation belts (Van Allen radiation belts) 219, 241, 365, 366, 412
radio control post (RUP) 311, 312
Radio Corporation of America (RCA) 392
Radio Counter Measures Branch, NRL 409
radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) 392
radium 109
Rafael 453
Rakete, Die (magazine) 130
Ramo, Simon 229, 232–234, 343
Ramo-Wooldridge Corp. (R-W) 232, 233.
See also TRW, Inc.
Ramsey, George D. 67
Rand Corporation 188, 231, 348, 392, 395, 396
RAND, Project 187–190. See also Rand Corporation
Rao, U.R. 448
Raymond, Arthur 188
RB-57D Canberra 322
Reaction Motors, Inc. (RMI) 174–177, 214, 217, 354
Reaction Research Society 135
reaction wheel 112, 128
Reagan, Ronald W. 291
recoil 31, 128
reconnaissance
    aerial (aircraft) 147, 230, 279, 311, 318, 320, 387–392, 396, 398–400, 402, 405
    space (satellite) 232, 278, 293, 320, 321, 348, 375, 385, 387, 390, 392, 394, 396, 399, 402, 404–411, 414, 415
Red Air Force Academy, USSR 133
Red Army 154, 159, 160, 269
Red Guards 444
red-fuming nitric acid (RFNA) 172, 175, 300
Redstone (rocket) 165, 205–207, 209, 211, 218, 306, 308, 333, 348, 349, 359, 361, 382, 426, 427
Redstone Arsenal 164, 165, 204, 205, 207–209, 211, 221, 232, 250, 377, 379
reentry, atmospheric 239, 241–243, 253, 359, 397, 425, 426
reentry test vehicle (RTV) program 359, 360, 364
Rees, Eberhard 160, 165, 364
Regener, Erich 194
Regulus 1 221
Remagen bridge 154
Remington Rand UNIVAC 251
remote sensing of Earth 125
Renaissance 87
Reno, Jesse Lee 59, 62, 64
Reno, Jesse Wilford 62
Reno, Nev. 62
REP-Hirsch Award 110, 126
REP-Hirsch Prize. See REP-Hirsch Award
Republic Aviation Corp. 179, 180, 210
Research Academy No.5, PRC 186, 440, 441
Reshetnev, Mikhail F. 294, 295
retrograde orbit 451, 453
Reutovo 287
Reutte 140, 157
Revolutionary War 47
Rheintochter 183, 276
Rhine river 154
Richardson, William L. 303
Rickenbacker, Eddie 175
Rickover, Hyman G. 256, 257
Ridenour, Louis 390
Riedel, Klaus 125, 128, 138, 275
rifled barrel 84, 85
Riga 273
Rio Grande 302
Ritland, Osmond J. 232, 395, 396, 404
Ritter 125
RKK Energia. See Energia, RKK (Corporation)
RL10 249
RL10A 249
RNII. See Jet Propulsion Scientific Research Institute (RNII),
USSR
Robillard, G. 366
Rockefeller, Laurence S. 175, 176, 390, 402
Rockefeller, Nelson A. 387
rocket 2
    ancient 1, 2, 5, 7
    central bore 33, 34
    Congreve 33, 34, 35, 37, 38, 41–48, 50–52, 54, 56, 59, 69, 71, 72, 74, 75, 84, 85
    drooping 64
    dynamics 42, 106, 112, 116, 117, 124, 249
    fabrication 15, 70, 72, 76
    fin 58
    flight 31, 39, 117
    guiding stick 32, 33, 72
    guiding stick, center-mounted 45, 72
    Hale 56–59, 65, 85
    harpoon 85–87
    hybrid 269, 270
    launcher 4–6, 75, 84, 114, 123, 178, 179, 181–183, 273
    lifesaving 86, 87
    liquid-propellant 34, 105, 112–114, 117, 122–124
    metal case 24, 33
    on aircraft 31, 128
    origin of word 11
    packet 326
    pencil 435, 436
    school at Woolwich 37
    signal 85, 87
    societies. See societies, rocket and spaceflight
    solid 1, 33, 34
    solid-propellant 105, 114, 115, 117, 126
    sounding 194, 196, 219, 220, 302, 311, 418, 426, 442, 447
    spinning 56, 72
    staging 86, 124, 204, 219
    stickless 5, 56–58
    submarine 79, 80
    thrust 33, 34, 106, 116, 117
    thrust in vacuum 114–118
    waltz 41
    war 11, 23–26, 28, 29, 31–33, 35, 45, 55, 58, 69, 70, 76, 80–83
Rocket Basics 1 34
Rocket Basics 2 42
Rocket Basics 3 106
Rocket Basics 4 116
Rocket Battalion, Union Army 65
Rocket Brigade 41
rocket equation 105, 106, 109
Rocket Ordnance Section, NDRC 178
Rocket Propellant Intelligence Agency 224
Rocket Propulsion Department, RAE 433
rocket range (ESRANGE) 430
rocket ship 49
rocket technology proliferation 7, 8, 69, 70, 72
Rocket-Sonde Research Branch, NRL 199, 350
Rocketdyne Division, North American Aviation   207, 223, 235, 236, 244, 249, 252–254, 359, 368
Rockwell International 222
Rocky Mountains 246
Rofe, Bryan 427
Rohini (satellite) 449, 450
Rohini 125 447
Rohini 560 447
Rohini 75 447
Rohini series 447
Rohini-1 418. See also Rohini (satellite)
roles and missions (1956 memorandum)  220, 221, 379
Rolls-Royce 428, 433
Roosevelt, Franklin D. 148
Root, L. Eugene 227
RORSAT 287
Rosen, Milton W. 216, 350, 352
Rosenberg, Julius 180
Rosholdt, Erling 259
Rosny, J.H., aîné 111
Ross, General 50, 51
Roswell Museum and Art Center, Roswell, New Mex. 123
Roswell, New Mex. 113, 119–121, 167, 176
Rover 383
Royal Air Force (RAF) 129, 148, 311
Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE) 428, 430, 434
Royal Horse Artillery 37, 41, 84
Royal Laboratory, Woolwich 32, 33, 297
Royal Marine Artillery 35, 37, 47, 50, 84
Royal Military Academy, Woolwich 42
Royal Society 87
Roys, Thomas W. 86
RP-1 (Rocket Propellant - 1) 223, 235
RS-27 223
RS-68 253
RT-1 290
RT-2 290
RTV-A-2 212, 214, 215. See also MX-774
Rubis 421
Rückert, H.J. 135
Rudolf, Arthur 165
Ruggieris 11
Rumania 110, 123, 124, 126
Rumbel, Keith 259
Rumyantsev Library 104
Russo-Turkish War 77, 78, 82
Ruth, Mel 353
Ryazansky, Mikhail S. 161, 284, 336
Rynin, Nikolai 130

S

S-3D 223
S-51. See Ariel-1
S-52. See Ariel-2
S-53. See Ariel-3
Saar 145
Sacramento Mountains 198
Saddler 289
safety rating 173
Sahara desert 419
Saint Louis. See Louis IX
Sakharov, Andrei D. 280
Salisbury 423, 427
Salomon, King of Hungary 12
saltpeter 2, 4, 10, 13, 16–18, 23, 26
saltpeter plantation 17
Salyut. See KB Salyut
Samara. See Kuibyshev (Samara)
SAMOS. See Satellite and Missile Observation System (SAMOS)
San Andres Mountains 198
San Clemente Island 262
San Diego, Calif. 170, 212, 213, 215, 234, 243, 303, 357
San Francisco, Calif. 118
San Juan de Ulloa, Castle of 61
San Lorenzo 75
San Marco platform 196, 266, 450
Sandal 286, 289
Sanderson, J.A. 394
Sandia Corporation 412
Sandstone 225
Sandy, Operation 194–196
Sänger, Eugen 130, 135
Santa Monica, Calif. 188, 252
Santiago, Chile 357
Saphir 421
Sapwood 289, 293, 318, 326
Sarabhai, Vikram 447
Saracens 9
Sardinia-Piedmont 82
Saryshagan 279, 301, 310, 317, 319, 406–408
Sasin 289
satellite. See spacecraft
Satellite and Missile Observation System (SAMOS)  395, 396, 402
Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV). India 448
satellite recovery vehicle (SRV) 397, 398, 401
Saturn 223
Saturn I 165, 298
Saturn IB 165, 298
Saturn V 165, 244, 248, 305, 458, 459
Savage 290
Savannah, Ga. 357
Scarp 289
Schachner, Nathan 130, 132
Schairer, George S. 185
Scherschewsky, Alexander 128
Schiaparelli, Giovanni 93, 94, 97, 99, 100, 102
Schirra, Walter 380
Schlechter, Robert 353
Schlicke, Heinz 158
Schmetterling 158, 183, 276
Schmiedl, Friedrich 130
Schriever, Bernard A. 211, 228, 229, 231, 232, 234, 236, 241, 246, 352, 393, 404
Schultze, August 160
Schumacher, Andreas 73, 74
Schwartz, Joseph 374
Schwidetzky , Walter 160
Science Advisory Board, Air Force 169, 185, 186, 227, 228
Science Advisory Group, Air Corps 169, 235
science fiction 87–89, 91, 93, 190
Scientific American 343
Scientific Engineering Institute 390
Scientific Laboratory (ESLAB) 430
scientific method 11, 19
Scientific Research Institute of Thermal Processes 271.  See also NIITP
Scientific-Research Test Range N.5 312.
See also Tyuratam
SCORE. See Signal Communications by Orbiting Relay Equipment
SCOTOP 403, 404
Scott, Winfield 48, 58, 61, 63
Scout 266, 302, 344, 423, 432, 434
Scoville, Herbert 227
Scud 292
Scud-A 289
Scud-B 292
Scunner 284, 289
Scurlock, Arch 259
SeaLaunch Company 196, 450
Searby, John H. 149
Second Artillery, People’s Liberation Army 440
Second Seminole War 61
Sedov, Leonid I. 351, 361
Sego 289
Seliger, lake 162
Semipalatinsk 319
semyorka. See R-7
Senate, United States 91, 193, 211, 221, 241, 303, 340, 342, 377
Senegal 73
Sergeant 202, 348, 349, 359, 360, 362, 368, 369
Serge'ev, Prof. K. 335. See also Korolev, Sergei P.
Seringapatam, battle of 28, 29, 31
Serov, Ivan A. 162
Sevastopol 83, 84
Seventh Ministry of Machine Building 440, 444
Severn river 175, 176
Seville 72
Shanghai 442
Shapley, Harlow 400
sharashka 274, 275
Sharpe, Mitchell R. 125
Shavit 418, 453
Shell-405 458
Shepard Jr., Alan B. 207, 380, 382
Sheremet'evo 279
Shesta, John 132, 167, 174, 175
Shil'der, Karl 78–80
ship inertial navigation system (SINS) 222, 263
Shubnikov, Georgii M. 312, 313
Shyster 284, 289
Siberia 294, 329, 366
Sibling 289
Signal Communications by Orbiting Relay Equipment  245, 376, 380
Signal Corps, Army 117, 355
Signal Engineering Laboratory, Army 358
Signal Intelligence Service, Army 180
Sikorsky, Igor I. 132
Silesia 8
Silistria 78
Silverstein, Abe 249
Singapore 365
Singer, S. Fred 348, 349
Siry, Joseph W. 352, 353
SKB-385 291–293
Skean 289
ski site 147, 179
Skinner, John S. 52
Skinner, Leslie A. 167, 178
Skipjack class submarine 258
Skunk Works, Lockheed Aircraft Co. 249, 391
Skylark 426
skyrocket 85
Slayton, Donald "Deke" 380
sloshing 455
SLV-3 418, 448, 449, 450.
See also Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV). India
Smith, Apollo Milton Olin ("Amo") 168
Smith, Bernard 130, 132, 167, 168
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) 357
Smithsonian Institution 117, 121
Snark 221, 222, 231, 238, 306
Sobell, Morton 180
societies, rocket and spaceflight 126, 127, 134
Society for Assist. to Aviation and Chem. Industry 268
Society for Space Travel, Germany 126, 130
Society for Study of Space, Germany 134
Society for the Study of Interplanetary Communications  133
sodium permanganate 145
solar activity cycle, 11-year 332, 335
solar cell 129, 190, 348, 358, 359, 450
Solid Propellant Information Agency 224
solid-rocket booster, Space Shuttle 174
SolRad 409. See also Galactic Radiation Background (GRAB) satellite
SolRad I 411
sonar, terrain matching 263
Sounding Rocket Group, Japan 436
South Africa 357
South America 37, 70, 71, 134
South Mountain, Battle of 62
Southeast Asia 8
Soviet Space Forces 281
Soviet Union. See USSR
Soviet-German R&D centers 160, 161
Soyuz 287, 294, 339, 344
Spaatz, Carl 193
Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS) 394
space communications 93, 125, 128, 129, 189, 380, 382, 383, 458
Space Department, APL 263
Space Flight Control Center (TsUP) 280–282
Space Inertial Reference Equipment (SPIRE) 240
space, military 190, 191, 287, 288, 290, 385, 392, 395, 461
Space Shuttle 198, 222, 337, 455
Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) 34, 223
space station 93, 125, 128
Space Technology Center (ESTEC) 430
Space Technology Laboratory (STL) 232, 233, 412.
See also TRW, Inc.
space travel 87, 103, 111, 143
space weapons 125
spacecraft v, 92, 93, 103, 111, 117, 129, 135, 165, 180, 184, 185, 187–191, 192, 218, 253, 263, 264, 269, 277, 285, 287, 294, 331, 334
spaceflight 103, 112, 123, 127, 133, 273
spaceflight, human 189, 190, 269, 277
Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) 357
Spain 38, 69, 71, 72, 357, 430
Sparta project 426
Special Assistant for Cold War Strategy 387
Special Assistant to the President for Science and Technology  341, 377
Special Brigade, Soviet Army 277, 310
Special Projects Office (SPO), Navy 254, 255, 264
specific impulse 34, 106, 168, 205, 214, 215, 236, 249, 255, 258, 260
Speer, Albert 142, 143, 155
Sperry Gyroscope 428
Sperry Rand Corporation 205
Spica, Inc. 392
Sputnik 233, 244, 253, 264, 269, 277, 317, 318, 325, 334–336, 341, 343, 344, 359, 364, 366, 372, 383, 395, 402
Sputnik 1 334, 335, 339, 340, 343, 344, 375, 418
Sputnik 2 337, 339, 340, 343, 344
Sputnik 3 334, 344
SR-71 391, 393. See also A-12
Sriharicota Island 449, 450
SS-1 284, 289, 440
SS-1b 289, 291
SS-1c 292
SS-2 289, 440
SS-3 265, 284, 289, 311, 441
SS-4 286, 288, 289, 318, 407, 441
SS-5 288, 289, 318
SS-6 236, 289, 293, 318, 323, 326, 331, 441
SS-7 289, 322
SS-8 289, 322
SS-9 289
SS-11 288, 289, 318
SS-13 290
SS-18 288
SS-N-18 196
St. Albert. See Albertus Magnus
St. Lucia 299
St. Petersburg 78, 80, 81, 84, 109, 267.  See also Leningrad
St. Petersburg Rocket Establishment 80, 81
St. Thomas Aquinas 12
stabilization, gravity-gradient 263
Stalin, Iosif (Joseph) V. 141, 282
Stalin Organ 273
Stalingrad (Volgograd) 277, 310
stand, dual position test 298
stand, test 213, 214
Stanford Research Institute 425
Stanford University 118
Staoueli, battle of 73
Star Spangled Banner 52, 53
State Central [Rocket] Testing Range N.4 277, 310.
See also Kapustin Yar (Kap-Yar)
State Central Testing Range 276
State University of Iowa 365, 371
Staver, Robert B. 157, 159
Steering Committee, ESRO 430
Stehling, Kurt R. 353
Sternfeld, Ary 110, 112
Stettin (Szczecin), bay of 139
Stevens, Lieutenant J.H. 47
Stewart, Homer J. 352
sticks, guiding 23
Stiff, Ray C. 172
Stirling 148
Stockton, N.J. 168
Stonington, Conn. 49
Stooge 183
Strangways, T. 43
Strategic Air Command (SAC) 192, 222, 245, 309, 409
Strategic Missiles Evaluation Committee 229–231
Strategic Rocket Forces, USSR 277, 281, 282, 288, 322, 323, 331
Strauss, Lewis 230
Strelka 345, 403
strike force (la force de frappe) 420
Stuart, J.E.B. 67
Stuhlinger, Ernst 361
Stuttgart 134
Stuttgart Technical University 194
Subic Bay, Philippines 442
submarine 79, 80, 162, 183, 239, 256, 257, 259–261, 263, 264, 293
submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM)   196, 207, 256, 287, 291, 293
Sud-Aviation 423
Sudan 69, 72
Suez Crisis 285
sulfur 2, 4, 13, 16, 17, 174
Summerfield, Martin 173, 176, 177
Sung (Song) Dynasty 5
Sunnyvale, Calif. 394, 403
Suntan 249
Susane, Louis 16, 72, 73
Susquehanna River 47
Sweaborg 84
Sweden 18, 56, 69, 70, 140, 430
Switzerland 57, 69, 70, 113, 386, 430
Symington, Stuart 193
Syr-Dar'ya river 81, 316
Syracuse, N.Y. 244
Syracuse University 167
Syria 23
Syrians 9
system engineering and technical direction  231, 233, 234
Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) 458

T

T-Stand, Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA 298
Tabanera, T.M. 134, 135
Taccola, Mariano 14
Tacoma Narrows Bridge, Wash. 169
Taganrog 84
Taifun 155
Tajikistan 80
Takagi, N. 436
Talcott, G. 55
Talcott, George H. 59, 62
Talos 219
Tambov insurrection 271
tank, integral propellant 213, 215
tank, pressurized propellant 124, 213, 214, 235
tank, propellant 114, 122, 144, 213, 236, 248, 292
tar, roofing 172
Tartars 5
Tashkent 312, 314, 316, 318, 319, 321
TASS news agency 282, 318, 331, 335
Taylor, Zachary 58
Teapot Committee 234. See also Strategic Missiles Evaluation Committee
Technical University of Aachen 139
Teheran Conference 385
Tel Aviv 451, 453
Teller, Edward 225–228, 255–257, 342, 460
Tengiz, lake 312
Tennessee 171
Terrier 219
Tessmann, Bernhard 157
test ban treaties, nuclear 411
tetranitromethane 113
thermal control 189, 414
thermal control, passive 109, 367, 369, 421, 427
thermonuclear bomb 225–228, 230, 280, 331
    dry design 227, 230
    wet design 227
Thiel, Adolph (Dolph) 250
Thiel, Walter 138, 149, 250
Thiokol 241
Thiokol (polysulfide polymer) 172, 174, 259
Thiokol Chemical Corporation 174, 176, 254, 258, 265, 278, 354
Thompson Products Co. 233
Thompson Ramo Wooldridge, Inc. 233.  See also TRW Inc.
Thoolen, Gerard A.G. 131
Thor 208, 223, 232, 233, 240, 241, 250–253, 309, 344, 396–398, 401, 403
Thor-Able 253
Thor-Agena 253
Thor-Delta 432
Thornton, Colonel 52, 53
thrust termination 260
thrust vector control 104, 138, 214, 217, 255, 259, 261, 292
Thumba 447
Thuringia 150
Tienanmen Square, events in 1989 186
Tikhomirov, Nikolai I. 130, 267
Tikhonravov, Mikhail K. 268, 269, 325, 326, 332, 414
Timur (Tamerlane) 23, 25
Tiny Tim 198, 204
Tippoo (Tipu, Tippu) Sultan 27–29
TIROS I 382
TIROS II 382
Titan 208, 232, 233, 240, 246, 247, 250, 251, 253, 265, 266, 308, 353, 397
Titan family 216
Titan I 247, 248, 250, 289, 308
Titan II 247, 266, 289
Titan III 247
Titan IIIC 413
Titan 34 247
Titan IV v, 247, 248
Titanic 125
Titov, German 384
TLM-18 299
TNT. See trinitrotoluene (TNT)
Toftoy, Holger N. 157–159, 164, 207, 208
Tomahawk 221
Tombaugh, Clyde 97, 299
Topaze 421
torquing, magnetic 263
Toulon 72, 112
Tour, Maistre de la 25
Tousey, Richard 199
Toward New Horizons, SAG report 185
Townsend, John W. 350
Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS)  198, 233
tracking stations (ESTRACK) 430
transistor 190, 348, 357, 368
Transit, Navy Navigation Satellite System (NNSS)  263, 264
Transit spacecraft 264
Transit 356
Transit 1 382
Transit 1A 264
Transit 1B 264, 458
Transit 2 382
Transit 2A 409, 410
Transit 4A 392
Transylvania 123
Trident 240, 253, 308
Trimble Jr., George S. 363
trinitrotoluene (TNT) 146, 224
Trinity Site 198
Triton 219
Trivium Charontis, Junction 95
Truax, Robert C. 167, 172, 176, 250, 393
Truman, Harry S. 158, 226, 303, 379, 400
TRW, Inc. 232–234, 246, 250, 412, 413, 426
Tsander, Fridrikh A. 130, 268–270, 272, 273, 279
Tsien, Hsue-Shen (Qian Xuesen) 168, 185–187, 439, 443, 444
Tsiklon 287, 288
Tsiolkovsky formula. See rocket equation
Tsiolkovsky, Konstantin E. 91, 103–108, 116, 126, 268, 335, 343
TsKBEM 281, 282, 283, 337
TsNII Kometa 287
TsNII-58 290
TsNIIMash 280–283. See also NII-88
TsSKB 287, 293, 294, 415
TsUP. See Space Flight Control Center (TsUP)
Tukhachevsky, Mikhail 271, 278
Tularossa Basin 198
Tunisia 178
Tupolev, Andrei 275
turbine 1
turbopump 145, 214, 354
Turkestan 7, 80, 82
Turkestan Military District 312
Turkestan railroad 312, 314, 318
Turkey 84, 209
Turkmenistan 80
Turks 9
TV-0 358
TV-1 358
TV-2 358, 359
TV-3 358, 362, 363, 368
TV-3BU 368, 372
TV-4 358, 372
Twiggs, General 64
Twiss, Peter 427
Tydings, Millard E. 193
Typhon 219
Tyuratam 81, 301, 310, 312–323, 326, 329, 330, 334, 336, 347, 406, 424

U

U-2 249, 279, 318–320, 322, 390–393, 395, 396, 402, 404, 460
U-234 158
U-boat 183. See also submarine
Udomlya, island of 162
UFA Film Company 126
Uhuru 196
Ukraine 268, 282
Ulinski, Franz 130
unidentified flying object (UFO) 120, 126, 460
United Aircraft Corp. 249
United Nations 462
United States 224, 418
United Technology Center 261
University of Tokyo 435
unrotated projectiles (UP) 183, 426
unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH)  247, 258, 360
Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Panel (UARRP)  199, 375
UR (universal rocket) 288, 338
UR-100 288–290, 318
UR-500 290
Ural mountains 225
Uranus 97
Uruguay 75
Usedom, island of 139
Ushagan 78
USO 397
USS Ethan Allen 263
USS George Washington 257, 258, 263
USS Midway 194–196
USS Nautilus 222, 261, 263
USS Norton Sound 196, 218, 241
USS Sam Houston 256
USS Scorpion 258
USS Triton 263
USSR 225, 267, 418
Uxbridge, General 44
Uzbekistan 80, 81, 312

V

V-1 141, 146–148, 151, 152, 154, 179, 180, 193, 261
V-1 (American) 180. See also JB-2
V-1000 279, 407, 408
V-2 125, 129, 138, 140, 142, 144, 147, 148, 151, 152, 154, 155, 157, 159–162, 183, 185, 192, 194–197, 199, 201, 204, 205, 211–216, 235, 237, 250, 275, 276, 277, 283, 302, 310, 328, 351, 361, 376.  See also A-4
Valencia 10
Valier, Max 128
Valparaiso 71
Van Allen, James A. 199, 219, 348, 349, 357, 365, 366, 371, 372
Van Devander, Charles W. 132
van Dresser, Peter 167
Vandenberg Air Force Base 245, 248, 266, 301, 309, 310, 399, 403, 461
Vandenberg, Hoyt S. 194, 309
vane, graphite 139, 214
vane, molybdenum 138
vanes in exhaust flow 138, 139, 144, 214
Vanguard I 358, 359, 364, 372, 374–376
Vanguard launch vehicle 219, 253, 344, 353–355, 358, 361, 363, 372, 396
Vanguard program 216, 333, 344, 352, 355, 357, 379, 382, 385, 387, 390, 393, 409, 410
Varna 77, 78
Vauquelin, Nicolas-Louis 36
Vega 432
Vela program 411–414
Vela spacecraft 412–414
Vela 1A 412
Vela 1B 412
Vela 5A 411
Vela 5B 411
velocity, equivalent exhaust 34, 106
velocity, escape 117
velocity, exhaust 34, 105, 112, 115, 116, 124
vengeance weapon 147, 152. See also V-1; V-2
Venice 10, 14
Venus 19, 93, 109, 380
Vera Cruz 58, 60–63, 71, 83
Verdun, battle of 74, 128
Verne, Jules 88–91, 103, 117, 123, 193, 268, 302
vernier engine 238
Vernon 161, 418
Veronique 418, 419
Veronique-N 419
vertical, local. See local vertical
Vertikal' 311
Vestine, Ernest H. 348
Vetrov, Georgii S. 215
Vichy Government 112
Vienna 74, 76
Viking 199, 216–219, 246, 350, 352, 354, 358
Vitro Laboratories 255
Vixen 70
VNIIEM 287
Volunteer Society for Assistance to Army, Aviation, and Navy 268
Volga river 277, 293, 310
Volna 196
von Augustin, Vincenz 74, 76
von Braun, Magnus 157
von Braun, Wernher 91, 125–127, 137–139, 141–143, 146, 151, 154–160, 163–165, 194, 204, 208–211, 221, 232, 238, 250, 275, 278, 308, 333, 349, 352, 355, 360, 361, 364, 370– 372, 379, 384
von Däniken, Erich 460
von Hauslab, Franz 76
von Hoefft, Franz 130
von Kármán, Theodore 110, 120, 132, 168–170, 173, 176, 177, 180, 185–187, 192, 193, 201, 204, 235, 259, 439
von Neumann, John 227–229, 245
von Pirquet, Guido 130
von Ribbentrop, Joachim 141
von Schweden, Crown Prince 74
Voronezh 344
Voroshilov, Kliment E. 141, 278
Vostok 287, 294, 325, 345, 346
Vostok-1 345, 414
Vostok-1KP 345
Vostok-2 345
Vostok-3 345
Vostok-3KA 345
Votkinsk Plant 287, 292
Vought Astronautics 266
Voyager 1 455
Voznyuk, Vassilii I. 310, 311
Vultee Aircraft 210
Vyshinsky, A.Ya. 274

W

W-38 243
W-49 241, 243, 328
WAC Corporal 198, 203, 204
Wade-Giles system 187
Wagner, Herbert 158
Wake Island 245
Walcheren Island 37
Wallops 266
Wallops Flight Facility, NASA 302, 379
Wallops Island, Va. 301, 302, 379
Walsh, J. Paul 352
Walter 428
Walter Company 428
Walter, Hellmuth 428
Walters, Russell 353
Walther, Erich 149
War of 1812 37, 38, 47, 55
War of Triple Alliance 71
war rocket. See rocket: war
warhead 4, 33, 58, 144, 146, 205, 221, 224, 228, 239, 241, 243, 255, 256, 261, 279, 284, 288, 290, 327, 330, 331, 408, 426, 442
warhead intercept 407, 408
Warrington, L. 58
Washington, D.C. 50, 51, 216, 323
Wasserfall 139, 155, 183, 202, 276, 277, 279
Waterloo, battle of 43–45
Waterman, Alan T. 350
Waxwing 433, 434
WD-40 235
Weapons Research Establishment (WRE) 423, 426, 427
Weapons Research Establishment Satellite (WRESAT) 426–428
Webb, James E. 382
Weiffenbach, George 264
Wellington, Duke of 38–40, 43, 44
Wesley, Samuel 41
West Point. See Military Academy, West Point
Westchester 233
Westcott 433
Western Development Division (WDD), Air Force  231, 232, 393, 395, 396.  See also Air Force Ballistic Missile Division (AFBMD)
Westinghouse Electric Corp 262
whale 85, 86
whaling industry 85. See also whale
Whinnery, John 234
Whinyates, Captain E.C. 43–45
Whipple, Fred L. 199, 357
White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mex.  196–200, 206, 217–219, 299, 301, 424
White Sands Proving Ground, New Mex. 159, 160, 196–198, 201–204, 209, 211, 215, 275, 302, 377.   See also White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mex.
White Sea 293
white-fuming nitric acid (WFNA) 175
Wiener-Neustadt 74, 76
Wiesner, Jerome B. 229
Wilkins, Hubert 88
Wilkins, John 87, 88
William of Rubruck, Friar 11
Williams, Sears 353
Wills, Arthur 427
Willys-Overland Co. 179
Wilson, Charles E. 220, 221, 258, 350, 352, 379
winged missile. See cruise (winged) missile
Winkler, Johannes 128
Winkler, Leopold 352
Wireless World 129
Wittgenstein, General 43
Wolf, Max 124
Wood, George 43, 44
Woods, Don 427
Wooldridge, Dean 229, 232–234
Woolwich 32, 47, 50, 298
Woomera 299, 315, 357, 424–427, 429, 431, 432
woomera, word 424
Worcester, Mass. 113, 119
World War I 74, 117, 123, 128, 178, 267
World War II 7, 27, 73, 123, 129, 132–134, 137, 141, 169, 178–181, 183, 184, 192, 210, 218, 230, 244, 258, 271, 302, 309, 313, 319, 325, 351, 385, 388, 390, 398, 400, 418, 423, 426, 435, 456
Worthman, Paul E. 406
Wright brothers 113, 188
Wright Field, Ohio 177, 179, 211
Wrigley, Walter 240
WS 395
WS-117L 393–395, 396, 399
WS-119L 390
Wyld, James H. 132, 167, 174, 175

X

X-10 304
X-17 239, 241
X-248, Altair 354
X-405 354, 358
X4 434
XLR43-NA-3 236
XLR43-NA-5 236
XN6 222
Xylophone 181

Y

Yahud 451
Yalta agreements 159
Yalta Conference 385
Yangel, Mikhail K. 285, 286, 288–290, 322, 338, 344, 441
Yavne 453
Yenisei river 294
Yenitchi 84
Yevpatoria 84, 282
Yezhov, N.I. 274
YF-2A 444
YF-3 444
yield 224, 225, 226, 255, 265, 327, 413
yo-yo despin 263
Yorktown, Va. 27
Young, Alan H. 131
Young, John M. 307
Yu.A. Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center 281
Yuzhnoe 286, 287.
See also M.K. Yangel State Design Office
"Yuzhnoe"; OKB-586

Z

Zahm, Albert F. 132
Zasyadko, Alexander 76, 78, 79
Zenit (rocket) 287, 288
Zenit-2 294, 325, 345, 414, 415
Zenit-4 415
Zheleznogorsk (Krasnoyarsk-26) 287, 294
Zhou Enlai 186, 439, 443, 444
Ziolkowski (Ziolkowsky).
See Tsiolkovsky, Konstantin E.
Zlatoust, South Ural 291, 293
Zvezdnyi Gorodok (Star City) 281
Zwerina, Rudolf 130
Zworykin, Vladimir K. 185



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